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      Physico-Chemical Conversion of Lignocellulose: Inhibitor Effects and Detoxification Strategies: A Mini Review

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          Abstract

          A pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to produce biofuels, polymers, and other chemicals plays a vital role in the biochemical conversion process toward disrupting the closely associated structures of the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin molecules. Various pretreatment steps alter the chemical/physical structure of lignocellulosic materials by solubilizing hemicellulose and/or lignin, decreasing the particle sizes of substrate and the crystalline portions of cellulose, and increasing the surface area of biomass. These modifications enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose by increasing accessibilities of acids or enzymes onto the surface of cellulose. However, lignocellulose-derived byproducts, which can inhibit and/or deactivate enzyme and microbial biocatalysts, are formed, including furan derivatives, lignin-derived phenolics, and carboxylic acids. These generation of compounds during pretreatment with inhibitory effects can lead to negative effects on subsequent steps in sugar flat-form processes. A number of physico-chemical pretreatment methods such as steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX), and liquid hot water (LHW) have been suggested and developed for minimizing formation of inhibitory compounds and alleviating their effects on ethanol production processes. This work reviews the physico-chemical pretreatment methods used for various biomass sources, formation of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, and their contributions to enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial activities. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the current strategies to alleviate inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysates or slurries.

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          Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

          N. Mosier (2005)
          Cellulosic plant material represents an as-of-yet untapped source of fermentable sugars for significant industrial use. Many physio-chemical structural and compositional factors hinder the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of any pretreatment technology is to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to hydrolysis in order to improve the rate of enzyme hydrolysis and increase yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose or hemicellulose. These methods cause physical and/or chemical changes in the plant biomass in order to achieve this result. Experimental investigation of physical changes and chemical reactions that occur during pretreatment is required for the development of effective and mechanistic models that can be used for the rational design of pretreatment processes. Furthermore, pretreatment processing conditions must be tailored to the specific chemical and structural composition of the various, and variable, sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This paper reviews process parameters and their fundamental modes of action for promising pretreatment methods.
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            Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review

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              Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: A review.

              Biofuel produced from lignocellulosic materials, so-called second generation bioethanol shows energetic, economic and environmental advantages in comparison to bioethanol from starch or sugar. However, physical and chemical barriers caused by the close association of the main components of lignocellulosic biomass, hinder the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The main goal of pretreatment is to increase the enzyme accessibility improving digestibility of cellulose. Each pretreatment has a specific effect on the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin fraction thus, different pretreatment methods and conditions should be chosen according to the process configuration selected for the subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation steps. This paper reviews the most interesting technologies for ethanol production from lignocellulose and it points out several key properties that should be targeted for low-cost and advanced pretreatment processes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                01 February 2018
                February 2018
                : 23
                : 2
                : 309
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; kim1535@ 123456purdue.edu ; Tel.: +1-765-637-8603
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6675-5084
                Article
                molecules-23-00309
                10.3390/molecules23020309
                6017906
                29389875
                4939f817-ef83-4a2e-aef6-637637df705c
                © 2018 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 22 November 2017
                : 30 January 2018
                Categories
                Review

                biofuels,ethanol,lignocellulose,pretreatment,hydrolysis,fermentation,inhibitors,detoxifications,phenols

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