Cancer is one of the most pervasive diseases in the developed world. It is a leading cause of death in many developed countries and the numbers are continuing to increase. Our methods for dealing with this disease are slowly advancing, however there are a number of obstacles to effective treatments. Primarily, cancers are extremely heterogenous in their causes and treatments, even within a particular cancer type. Whilst the types of mutations involved (such as the disruption of apoptosis and cell cycle) are generally consistent, different cancers require different specific changes that mean knowledge of one cancer is often not transferable to another. In addition, the effectiveness of treatment depends greatly on the type of cancer, the stage at which it is caught, and the individual involved. Finally, treatments are often not 100 per cent effective, with many cancers mutating in response to a given therapeutic. In short, a single cure for cancer is unlikely and finding effective treatments for specific cancer types is the most likely solution. Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer. It is the most common form of cancer amongst men and the third amongst women. It also accounts for almost 20 per cent of all deaths from cancer worldwide. The primary risk factor is, of course, smoking, with smokers accounting for 85 per cent of all sufferers. However, 15 per cent of cases still occur in those with no history of smoking showing the importance of genetic factors and other risk factors such as asbestos and air pollution. Current treatment for lung cancer includes chemo- and radio-therapy as well as drugs that block certain receptors key to the tumour's survival. Tumour biologist Associate Professor Tomoya Yamaguchi, who is based at the Department of Cell Biology, Kumamato University in Japan, explains that these methods are rarely 100 per cent effective at clearing the tumour and the reoccurrence rate is high. 'Therefore, it is imperative that new and more effective methods of treatment can be found to effectively tackle lung cancer.'