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      Risk of cholecystitis in patients with cancer : A population-based cohort study in Denmark

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      Cancer

      Wiley

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          Complications of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy.

          Endoscopic sphincterotomy is commonly used to remove bile-duct stones and to treat other problems. We prospectively investigated risk factors for complications of this procedure and their outcomes. We studied complications that occurred within 30 days of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy in consecutive patients treated at 17 institutions in the United States and Canada from 1992 through 1994. Of 2347 patients, 229 (9.8 percent) had a complication, including pancreatitis in 127 (5.4 percent) and hemorrhage in 48 (2.0 Percent). There were 55 deaths from all causes within 30 days; death was directly or indirectly related to the procedure in 10 cases. Of five significant risk factors for complications identified in a multivariate analysis, two were characteristics of the patients (suspected dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi as an indication for the procedure and the presence of cirrhosis) and three were related to the endoscopic technique (difficulty in cannulating the bile duct achievement of access to the bile duct by "precut" sphincterotomy, and use of a combined percutaneous-endoscopic procedure). The overall risk of complications was not related to the patient's age, the number of coexisting illnesses, or the diameter of the bile duct. The rate of complications was highest when the indication for the procedure was suspected dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi (21.7 percent) and lowest when the indication was removal of bile-duct stones within 30 days of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4.9 percent). As compared with those who performed fewer procedures, endoscopists who performed more than one sphincterotomy per week had lower rates of all complications (8.4 percent vs. 11.1 percent, P=0.03) and severe complications (0.9 percent vs. 2.3 percent, P=0.01). The rate of complications after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy can vary widely in different circumstances and is primarily related to the indication for the procedure and to endoscopic technique, rather than to the age or general medical condition of the patients.
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            Complications of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study.

            Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP/ES) can be associated with unforeseeable complications, especially when involving postprocedural pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors for complications of ERCP/ES in a prospective multicentric study. One hundred fifty variables were prospectively collected at time of ERCP/ES and before hospital discharge over 2 years, in consecutive patients undergoing the procedure in nine endoscopic units in the Lombardy region of Italy. More than 150 ERCPs were performed in each center per year by a single operator or by a team of no more than three endoscopists. Two thousand four hundred sixty-two procedures were performed; 18 patients were discharged because the papilla of Vater was not reached (duodenal obstruction, previous gastrectomy, etc.). Two thousand four hundred forty-four procedures were considered in 2103 patients. Overall complications occurred in 121 patients (4.95% of cases): pancreatitis in 44 patients (1.8%), hemorrhage in 30 (1.13%), cholangitis in 14 (0.57%), perforation during ES in 14 (0.57%), and others in 14 (0.57%); deaths occurred in three patients (0.12%). In multivariate analysis, the following were significant risk factors: a) for pancreatitis, age (< or = 60 yr), use of precutting technique, and failed clearing of biliary stones, and b) for hemorrhage, precut sphincterotomy and obstruction of the orifice of the papilla of Vater. The results of our study further contribute to the assessment of risk factors for complications related to ERCP/ES. It is crucial to identify high risk patients to reduce complications of the procedures.
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              Gallstone disease: Epidemiology of gallbladder stone disease.

              Gallstone disease is common: >700,000 cholecystectomies and costs of approximately 6.5 billion dollars annually in the U.S. The burden of disease is epidemic in American Indians (60-70%); a corresponding decrease occurs in Hispanics of mixed Indian origin. Ten to fifteen per cent of white adults in developed countries harbour gallstones. Frequency is further reduced in Black Americans, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, cholesterol gallstones predominate; 15% are black pigment. East Asians develop brown pigment stones in bile ducts, associated with biliary infection or parasites, or in intrahepatic ducts (hepatolithiasis). Certain risk factors for gallstones are immutable: female gender, increasing age and ethnicity/family (genetic traits). Others are modifiable: obesity, the metabolic syndrome, rapid weight loss, certain diseases (cirrhosis, Crohn's disease) and gallbladder stasis (from spinal cord injury or drugs like somatostatin). The only established dietary risk is a high caloric intake. Protective factors include diets containing fibre, vegetable protein, nuts, calcium, vitamin C, coffee and alcohol, plus physical activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CNCR
                Cancer
                Cancer
                Wiley
                0008543X
                10970142
                December 15 2008
                December 15 2008
                : 113
                : 12
                : 3410-3419
                Article
                10.1002/cncr.23961
                © 2008
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/cncr.23961

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