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      Análisis de la concentración de fluoruro en agua potable de la delegación Tláhuac, Ciudad de México Translated title: Analysis of drinking water fluoride concentration in Tlahuac, Mexico City

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          Abstract

          Se realizó un estudio descriptivo del agua de dieciocho zonas de Tláhuac, Cd. de México, con el objetivo de determinar la concentración de fluoruro en el agua potable. Se analizaron 144 muestras de agua obtenidas de los pozos y zonas vecinas de la delegación. El contenido de fluoruro fue analizado y cuantificado como lo establece la NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001. La concentración de fluoruros en las muestras de agua varió entre 0.44 a 1.28 ppm, con una concentración promedio de 0.86±0.19 ppm. Los niveles de fluoruro detectados en el agua de la mayoría de los pozos de la zona estudiada fueron superiores a los niveles establecidos por la normatividad con relación al consumo de sal fluorada. Es esencial que las autoridades de salud implementen medidas preventivas para evitar el consumo de sal fluorada y otros fluoruros adicionales porque se ha incrementado la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la Ciudad de México.

          Translated abstract

          A descriptive study of the water of 18 areas in the municipality of Tláhuac, México City, was conducted with the objective of assessing the fluoride concentration in drinking water. 144 water samples obtained from the wells and neighboring areas of the Tláhuac municipality were analyzed. The fluoride content was analyzed and quantified as established by the Mexican guideline NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.44 to 1.28 ppm, with an average concentration of 0.86±0.19 ppm. Fluoride levels found in most wells in the study area were higher than those established by the regulations regarding the consumption of fluoridated salt. It is essential that health authorities implement preventive measures to avoid the consumption of fluoridated salt and other additional fluoride due to increase dental fluorosis in México City.

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          Arsenic and Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water: Children’s IQ and Growth in Shanyin County, Shanxi Province, China

          Background Recently, in a cross-sectional study of 201 children in Araihazar, Bangladesh, exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water has been shown to lower the scores on tests that measure children’s intellectual function before and after adjustment for sociodemographic features. Objectives We investigated the effects of As and fluoride exposure on children’s intelligence and growth. Methods We report the results of a study of 720 children between 8 and 12 years of age in rural villages in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. The children were exposed to As at concentrations of 142 ± 106 μg/L (medium-As group) and 190 ± 183 μg/L (high-As group) in drinking water compared with the control group that was exposed to low concentrations of As (2 ± 3 μg/L) and low concentrations of fluoride (0.5 ± 0.2 mg/L). A study group of children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride (8.3 ± 1.9 mg/L) but low concentrations of As (3 ± 3 μg/L) was also included because of the common occurrence of elevated concentrations of fluoride in groundwater in our study area. A standardized IQ (intelligence quotient) test was modified for children in rural China and was based on the classic Raven’s test used to determine the effects of these exposures on children’s intelligence. A standardized measurement procedure for weight, height, chest circumference, and lung capacity was used to determine the effects of these exposures on children’s growth. Results The mean IQ scores decreased from 105 ± 15 for the control group, to 101 ± 16 for the medium-As group (p < 0.05), and to 95 ± 17 for the high-As group (p < 0.01). The mean IQ score for the high-fluoride group was 101 ± 16 and significantly different from that of the control group (p < 0.05). Children in the control group were taller than those in the high-fluoride group (p < 0.05); weighed more than the those in the high-As group (p < 0.05); and had higher lung capacity than those in the medium-As group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Children’s intelligence and growth can be affected by high concentrations of As or fluoride. The IQ scores of the children in the high-As group were the lowest among the four groups we investigated. It is more significant that high concentrations of As affect children’s intelligence. It indicates that arsenic exposure can affect children’s intelligence and growth.
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            Biological mechanisms of dental fluorosis relevant to the use of fluoride supplements.

            Fluorosis occurs when fluoride interacts with mineralizing tissues, causing alterations in the mineralization process. In dental enamel, fluorosis causes subsurface hypomineralizations or porosity, which extend toward the dentinal-enamel junction as severity increases. This subsurface porosity is most likely caused by a delay in the hydrolysis and removal of enamel proteins, particularly amelogenins, as the enamel matures. This delay could be due to the direct effect of fluoride on the ameloblasts or to an interaction of fluoride with the proteins or proteinases in the mineralizing matrix. The specific mechanisms by which fluoride causes the changes leading to enamel fluorosis are not well defined; though the early-maturation stage of enamel formation appears to be particularly sensitive to fluoride exposure. The development of fluorosis is highly dependent on the dose, duration, and timing of fluoride exposure. The risk of enamel fluorosis is lowest when exposure takes place only during the secretory stage, but highest when exposure occurs in both secretory and maturation stages. The incidence of dental fluorosis is best correlated with the total cumulative fluoride exposure to the developing dentition. Fluoride supplements can contribute to the total fluoride exposure of children, and if the total fluoride exposure to the developing teeth is excessive, fluorosis will result.
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              Estadística y Qumiometria para Química Analítica

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rica
                Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental
                Rev. Int. Contam. Ambient
                Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM (México, DF, Mexico )
                0188-4999
                November 2011
                : 27
                : 4
                : 283-289
                Affiliations
                [01] México D.F. orgnameUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco orgdiv1División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud
                [02] orgnameUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México orgdiv1Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza orgdiv2División de Estudios de Posgrado
                Article
                S0188-49992011000400001 S0188-4999(11)02700400001
                4abf3884-7f60-4ebc-abdb-d3f0a2c0e0d2

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                History
                : September 2010
                : May 2011
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Mexico


                México,drinking water,fluoride,agua potable,fluoruro
                México, drinking water, fluoride, agua potable, fluoruro

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