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      Evidence of Prolactin Immunoreactivity in the Bone Marrow of Untreated Multiple Myeloma Patients

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          Abstract

          The role of prolactin (PRL) in the physiological regulation of the immune system and in hematopoiesis is well known. There is also evidence of the significance of PRL in several pathological conditions such as autoimmune diseases and some malignancies, e.g. colon and breast carcinomas and also B cell malignancies. Multiple myeloma is known as a B cell malignancy. It is the result of malignant transformation of a single clone of neoplastic plasma cells that synthesize abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments. In our present studies, the possible expression of PRL in bone marrow cells obtained from diagnosed multiple myeloma (17 cases) or nonmyeloma (5 cases) patients was examined by the method of immunocytochemistry. Samples obtained from those multiple myeloma patients (13 cases) who had not received chemotherapy for 6 months prior to these studies showed a positive immunocytochemical reaction for PRL. Bone marrow smears of patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma who had received chemotherapy within 6 months of the study and also the smears of patients without diagnosed multiple myeloma failed to show a positive immune reaction for PRL. In the case of a patient who was examined prior to and also after a period of 3 months of chemotherapy, the PRL-immunopositive bone marrow cells had disappeared due to the treatment. According to the light microscopic analysis of the cell morphology, PRL-immunopositive cells in the bone marrow were mainly, but not exclusively, plasma cells. There was no correlation between the positive PRL staining of cells and the type of monoclonal immunoglobulin or the ratio of plasma cells detected in the bone marrow. Taken together, our results indicate a possible role of PRL in multiple myeloma. Further experiments are necessary to identify the prognostic value of PRL in multiple myeloma.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Multiple myeloma.

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            Extrapituitary prolactin: distribution, regulation, functions, and clinical aspects

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              Effects of growth hormone and prolactin immune development and function.

               W Murphy,  H Rui,  D Longo (1995)
              Growth hormone and prolactin are neuroendocrine hormones that exert numerous effects on immune system function and development. Several fundamental questions are addressed in this review. Do neuroendocrine hormones affect specific immune cell types? What is the physiological significance of these effects? Can these effects be exploited clinically? While it is clear that there are indeed significant interactions between the neuroendocrine and immune systems, there are relatively few examples with demonstrated physiological significance. Present studies indicate that growth hormone and prolactin may exert markedly different effects on immune cell types depending on their stage in differentiation. Recent emphasis has also been focussed on the use of these hormones or their antagonists clinically in the treatment of AIDS, cancer, and autoimmune disease states due to their pleiotropic effects and low toxicity after systemic administration. However, we do not yet have a clear picture of how the influence of neuroendocrine hormones may be used to favorably alter pathophysiologic processes affecting immune function and development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2001
                September 2001
                14 September 2001
                : 9
                : 2
                : 95-102
                Affiliations
                aFirst Department of Internal Medicine, bCentral Laboratory, Haynal Imre University of Health Sciences, cNeuroendocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Human Morphology and Developmental Biology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
                Article
                49012 Neuroimmunomodulation 2001;9:95–102
                10.1159/000049012
                11549891
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 34, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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