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      Awareness, Social Media, Ethnicity and Religion: are they Responsible for Vaccination Hesitancy? A Systematic Review with Annotated Bibliography

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      Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
      Journal of Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention

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          Vaccination is not only a medical term rather it is framed under socio-cultural perspectives and debates as well. Human history is full of illnesses caused bacteria and viruses killing millions of people including children and adults. Technological development in the health sector enabled to combat pathogenic illnesses through different methods whereby vaccination is one of them. However, it is a dilemma that vaccination has faced many barriers including logistical but most importantly sociocultural and religious. In 2019, WHO revealed vaccine hesitancy as a leading threat to health throughout the globe even in the top 10. This study looks to analyze peer reviewed literature to explore barriers to vaccination. Methodologically, this is desk research and systematic review. Numerous databases were searched with key words and purposively studies were selected for this study. A total of 17 most relevant studies were sampled. Findings show that there are four major factors hindering vaccination. 1st cultural and ethnic background matters whereby religion and the belief system are predominant factors. 2nd awareness and educational variables are also there, for instance, it is noted that many people are not aware of vaccination process specifically in case of HPV vaccination. 3rd social media plays a pivotal role whereby misinformation internalizes negative attitudes and misperceptions about vaccines. 4th social media is a key dimension whereby disinformation and misinformation are communicated through platforms whereby some are intentionally circulated. It is suggested that culturally relativism perspective can be helpful in increasing vaccination percentages. It pertains to intervention through culturally approved methods, for example, sensitizing the ethnic backgrounds through their leadership. In addition, vaccination tracking, media campaigns, focus on school level education to include health related course can be helpful.

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          Author and article information

          Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
          Journal of Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
          July 30 2022
          July 26 2022
          July 30 2022
          July 26 2022
          : 13
          : 4
          : 18-23
          © 2022


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