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      Sudden occurence of hypotension and bradycardia during greenlight laser transurethral resection of prostate: case report of two cases

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          Abstract

          Background

          Greenlight laser transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) is a standard surgical method used to treat patients with prostate gland enlargement, it is safe and effective.

          Case presentation

          We report two cases of sudden occurence of hypotension and bradycardia during greenlight laser TURP. Two patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy were scheduled for greenlight laser TURP under spinal anesthesia. Hypotension and bradycardia were suddenly occurred during the operation. The blood gas analysis revealed no hyponatremia (indicating TURP syndrome) or anemia (indicating hemorrhage). Operation was suspended and inotropic agents were administrated intravenous immediately, then blood pressure and heart rate increased to normal level within some minutes. The patients were discharged from hospital without any complications. We considered parasympathetic reflex was occurred during greenlight laser TURP.

          Conclusion

          Apart from TURP syndrome, hemorrhage, bladder perforation and high spinal anesthesia, the parasympathetic reflex which is caused by operative process can also induce hypotension and bradycardia during TURP.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)--incidence, management, and prevention.

          To update the complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), including management and prevention based on technological evolution. Based on a MEDLINE search from 1989 to 2005, the 2003 results of quality management of Baden-Württemberg, and long-term personal experience at three German centers, the incidence of complications after TURP was analyzed for three subsequent periods: early (1979-1994); intermediate (1994-1999); and recent (2000-2005) with recommendations for management and prevention. Technological improvements such as microprocessor-controlled units, better armamentarium such as video TUR, and training helped to reduce perioperative complications (recent vs. early) such as transfusion rate (0.4% vs. 7.1%), TUR syndrome (0.0% vs. 1.1%), clot retention (2% vs. 5%), and urinary tract infection (1.7% vs. 8.2%). Urinary retention (3% vs. 9%) is generally attributed to primary detrusor failure rather than to incomplete resection. Early urge incontinence occurs in up to 30-40% of patients; however, late iatrogenic stress incontinence is rare (<0.5%). Despite an increasing age (55% of patients are older than 70), the associated morbidity of TURP maintained at a low level (<1%) with a mortality rate of 0-0.25%. The major late complications are urethral strictures (2.2-9.8%) and bladder neck contractures (0.3-9.2%). The retreatment rate range is 3-14.5% after five years. TURP still represents the gold standard for managing benign prostatic hyperplasia with decreasing complication rates. Technological alternatives such as bipolar and laser treatments may further minimize the risks of this technically difficult procedure.
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            The incidence and risk factors for hypotension after spinal anesthesia induction: an analysis with automated data collection.

            We sought to identify factors that are associated with hypotension after the induction of spinal anesthesia (SpA) by using an anesthesia information management system. Hypotension was defined as a decrease of mean arterial blood pressure of more than 30% within a 10-min interval, and relevance was defined as a therapeutic intervention with fluids or pressors within 20 min. From January 1, 1997, to August 5, 2000, data sets from 3315 patients receiving SpA were recorded on-line by using the automatic anesthesia record keeping system NarkoData. Hypotension meeting the predefined criteria occurred in 166 (5.4%) patients. Twenty-nine patient-, surgery-, and anesthesia-related variables were studied by using univariate analysis for a possible association with the occurrence of hypotension after SpA. Logistic regression with a forward stepwise algorithm was performed to identify independent variables (P < 0.05). The discriminative power of the logistic regression model was checked with a receiver operating characteristic curve. Calibration was tested with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. The univariate analysis identified the following variables to be associated with hypotension after SpA: age, weight, height, body mass index, amount of plain bupivacaine 0.5% used for SpA, amount of colloid infusion before puncture, chronic alcohol consumption, ASA physical status, history of hypertension, urgency of surgery, surgical department, sensory block height of anesthesia, and frequency of puncture. In the multivariate analysis, independent factors for relevant hypotension after SpA consisted of three patient-related variables ("chronic alcohol consumption," odds ratio [OR] = 3.05; "history of hypertension," OR = 2.21; and the metric variable "body mass index," OR = 1.08) and two anesthesia-related variables ("sensory block height," OR = 2.32; and "urgency of surgery," OR = 2.84). The area of 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.72) below the receiver operating characteristic curve was significantly greater than 0.5 (P < 0.01). The goodness-of-fit test showed a good calibration of the model (H = 4.3, df = 7, P = 0.7; C = 7.3, df = 8, P = 0.51). This study contributes to the identification of patients with a high risk for hypotension after SpA induction, with the risk increasing two- or threefold with each additional risk factor. By using automated data collection, 5 (chronic alcohol consumption, history of hypertension, body mass index, sensory block height, and urgency of surgery) of 29 variables could be detected as having an association with hypotension after spinal anesthesia induction. The knowledge of these risk factors should be useful in increasing vigilance in those patients most at risk for hypotension, in allowing a more timely therapeutic intervention, or even in suggesting the use of alternative methods of spinal anesthesia, such as titrated continuous or small-dose spinal anesthesia.
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              Bipolar transurethral resection in saline--an alternative surgical treatment for bladder outlet obstruction?

              The transurethral resection in saline system uses bipolar energy for transurethral prostate resection, thus, avoiding the need for glycine irrigation and its associated complications. We compared the clinical efficacy and safety of bipolar transurethral resection in saline and of monopolar transurethral prostate resection for symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia. From January 2005 to June 2006, 238 consecutive patients with symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia were randomized into a prospective, controlled trial comparing the 2 treatment modalities. Patient demographics, operative time, hospital stay and complications were noted. Serum hemoglobin and electrolytes were determined in all patients immediately before and after the endoscopic procedure. During 18 months 120 patients were randomized to the conventional transurethral prostate resection group and 118 were randomized to the transurethral resection in saline group. Patient profiles, weight of resected prostatic tissue and duration of hospitalization were similar in the 2 groups. The decrease in serum sodium and serum chloride was statistically significantly greater in the transurethral prostate resection group than in the transurethral resection in saline group (each p = 0.05). The transurethral resection in saline procedure required significantly more time (mean 56 vs 44 minutes, p <0.01). There was 1 case (0.8%) of transurethral resection syndrome in the transurethral prostate resection group but none in the transurethral resection in saline group. Postoperative bleeding did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Clot retention was observed in 6 (5%) and 4 patients (3%) in the transurethral prostate resection and transurethral resection in saline group, respectively. Two repeat interventions were required in the transurethral prostate resection group. The bipolar transurethral resection in saline system is as efficacious as monopolar transurethral prostate resection but it is safer than the latter because of the lesser decrease in postoperative hypernatremia and the smaller risk of transurethral resection syndrome. However, probably due to technical reasons, transurethral resection in saline operative time is significantly longer.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Yanta West Road, No.277, 710061 Xi’an, China
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China
                Contributors
                guanzheng1980@126.com
                liujjxing8008@126.com
                Journal
                BMC Anesthesiol
                BMC Anesthesiol
                BMC Anesthesiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2253
                30 August 2016
                30 August 2016
                2015
                : 16
                : 1
                234
                10.1186/s12871-016-0234-x
                5006278
                27576558
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2016

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