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      In vitro activity of β-lactams in combination with avibactam against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis

      1 , 1 , 1 , 2

      Journal of Medical Microbiology

      Microbiology Society

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          Most cited references 19

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          Multiple mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: our worst nightmare?

          Pseudomonas aeruginosa carries multiresistance plasmids less often than does Klebsiella pneumoniae, develops mutational resistance to cephalosporins less readily than Enterobacter species, and has less inherent resistance than Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. What nevertheless makes P. aeruginosa uniquely problematic is a combination of the following: the species' inherent resistance to many drug classes; its ability to acquire resistance, via mutations, to all relevant treatments; its high and increasing rates of resistance locally; and its frequent role in serious infections. A few isolates of P. aeruginosa are resistant to all reliable antibiotics, and this problem seems likely to grow with the emergence of integrins that carry gene cassettes encoding both carbapenemases and amikacin acetyltransferases.
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            Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: treatment of pulmonary exacerbations.

            The natural history of cystic fibrosis lung disease is one of chronic progression with intermittent episodes of acute worsening of symptoms frequently called acute pulmonary exacerbations These exacerbations typically warrant medical intervention. It is important that appropriate therapies are recommended on the basis of available evidence of efficacy and safety. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation therefore established a committee to define the key questions related to pulmonary exacerbations, review the clinical evidence using an evidence-based methodology, and provide recommendations to clinicians. It is hoped that these guidelines will be helpful to clinicians in the treatment of individuals with cystic fibrosis.
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              Avibactam is a covalent, reversible, non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor.

              Avibactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor that is in clinical development, combined with β-lactam partners, for the treatment of bacterial infections comprising gram-negative organisms. Avibactam is a structural class of inhibitor that does not contain a β-lactam core but maintains the capacity to covalently acylate its β-lactamase targets. Using the TEM-1 enzyme, we characterized avibactam inhibition by measuring the on-rate for acylation and the off-rate for deacylation. The deacylation off-rate was 0.045 min(-1), which allowed investigation of the deacylation route from TEM-1. Using NMR and MS, we showed that deacylation proceeds through regeneration of intact avibactam and not hydrolysis. Other than TEM-1, four additional clinically relevant β-lactamases were shown to release intact avibactam after being acylated. We showed that avibactam is a covalent, slowly reversible inhibitor, which is a unique mechanism of inhibition among β-lactamase inhibitors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                September 01 2018
                September 01 2018
                : 67
                : 9
                : 1217-1220
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 1​Department of Microbiology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
                [2 ] 2​INSERM UMRS 1138, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Descartes, Université Paris Diderot; Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000801
                © 2018

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