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      A rare life-threatening disease: unilateral kidney compressed by huge chronic spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage

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          To study an uncommon life-threatening disease, spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal hemorrhage.

          Case descriptions

          A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the left waist and back of 1 month duration. The renal abscess was suspected by magnetic resonance imaging before operation. The perirenal hematoma was cleaned by operation. In another case, the patient had a functional solitary left kidney compressed by a huge retroperitoneal mass and uropenia appeared.


          The first patient died of adult respiratory distress syndrome after surgery. The second patient died of cardiac insufficiency and pulmonary embolism on the second day after evacuation of retroperitoneal hematoma.


          Conservative surgery, such as selective arterial embolization, is a reasonable approach in patients with chronic spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal space hemorrhage and with poor general condition. We strongly recommend drainage or interventional therapy, but not a major surgery, in patients with poor condition.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Management of spontaneous and iatrogenic retroperitoneal haemorrhage: conservative management, endovascular intervention or open surgery?

          Retroperitoneal haematoma is a rare clinical entity with variable aetiology, which is increasing in incidence mainly due to complications related to interventional procedures. There is no general consensus as to the best management plan for patients with retroperitoneal haematoma. A literature review was undertaken using MEDLINE, all relevant papers on retroperitoneal haemorrhage or haematoma were used. The diagnosis is often delayed as symptoms are nonspecific. Retroperitoneal haematoma should be suspected in patients with significant groin, flank, abdominal, back pain or haemodynamic instability following an interventional procedure. Spontaneous haemorrhage usually occurs in patients who are anticoagulated. Multi-slice CT and arteriography are important for diagnosis. Most haemodynamically stable patients can be managed with fluid resuscitation, correction of coagulopathy and blood transfusion. Endovascular treatment involving selective intra-arterial embolisation or the deployment of stent-grafts over the punctured vessel is attaining an increasingly important role. Open repair of retroperitoneal bleeding vessels should be reserved for cases when there is failure of conservative or endovascular measures to control the bleeding. Open repair is also required if endovascular facilities or expertise is unavailable and in cases where the patient is unstable. If treated inappropriately, the mortality of patients with retroperitoneal haematoma remains high. There is a lack of level I evidence for the best management plans for retroperitoneal haematoma, and evidence is based on small cohort series or isolated case reports. Conservative management should only be reserved for patients who are stable. Interventional radiology with intra-arterial embolisation or stent-grafting is the treatment of choice. Open surgery is now rarely required.
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            Spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage: a 10-year experience at our institution.

            To report our experience in patients with spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage (SPH) seen at our institution over a 10-year period. Over the years from 1992 to 2002, 13 patients with SPH without a history of trauma, were treated at our hospital. There were 5 male and 8 female patients with a mean age of 55.7 years (range 36-79 years). The patients' records were reviewed retrospectively with respect to etiology, clinical presentation, radiologic findings and therapeutic management of SPH. All patients were presented with flank or abdominal pain. Radiological evaluation included ultrasonography (U/S) in 7 cases and computed tomography (CT) in 13 cases. An underlying renal mass was indentified employing U/S in 2 cases and using CT in 10 cases respectively. The etiology of SPH was determined in 12 cases. The most common causes were angiomyolipoma (5 patients) and renal cell carcinoma (4 patients). Out of the remaining 4 cases with SPH, one was associated with anticoagulant therapy; polyarteritis nodosa and Wegener angeitis were the underlying diseases in 2 cases respectively; finally, the etiology could not be determined in 1 case. All but two patients were managed surgically. Complete nephrectomy was performed in 6 cases, partial nephrectomy in 4 and simple evacuation of the haematoma was performed in 1 case. SPH presence should arouse suspicions concerning its etiology, since the most common cause is a renal tumor and approximately 50% of such tumors are malignant. CT scanning is a useful imaging modality for the initial evaluation of SPH, permitting identification of the underlying cause in most instances.
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              Spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage: what radiologists need to know.

              Spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage (SPH), also known as Wünderlich's syndrome, is a rare urological emergency. This article reviews the most common causes of SPH and the role of imaging in establishing the correct diagnosis and in guiding the appropriate therapy. A thorough understanding of underlying etiologies, imaging appearances, optimal imaging techniques, and follow-up protocols are crucial to recognize patients with SPH due to benign disease and avoid unnecessary nephrectomies.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                08 March 2018
                : 14
                : 489-492
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021, China
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021, China
                [3 ]Hubei Engineering Laboratory for Synthetic Microbiology, Wuhan Institute of Biotechnology, Wuhan 430075, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xian-Lin Yi, Department of Urology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 1 529 652 1231, Email yzztx@ 123456126.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Lu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Case Series


                surgery, kidney, hemorrhage, retroperitoneal, spontaneous


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