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      Disease characteristics, prognosis and miglustat treatment effects on disease progression in patients with Niemann-Pick disease Type C: an international, multicenter, retrospective chart review

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          Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C) is a lysosomal lipid storage disorder characterized by progressive neurodegenerative symptomatology. The signs and symptoms of NP-C vary with age at disease onset, and available therapies are directed at alleviating symptoms and stabilizing disease progression. We report the characteristics and factors related to disease progression, and analyze the effect of miglustat treatment on disease progression and patient survival using NP-C disability scales.


          This retrospective, observational chart review included patients with NP-C from five expert NP-C centers. Patient disability scores were recorded using three published NP-C disability scales, and a unified disability scale was developed to allow comparison of data from each scale. Disease progression was represented by scores on the unified NP-C disability scale. Patients were stratified as infantile (< 4 years), juvenile (≥ 4 − < 16 years), and adult (≥ 16 years) based on age at diagnosis, and treated ≥1 year and non-treated/treated < 1 year based on the duration of miglustat treatment.


          The analysis included 63 patients; the majority (61.9%) were on miglustat therapy for ≥1 year. Ataxia and clumsiness/frequent fall were the most common neurologic symptoms across age groups, whereas, hypotonia and delayed developmental milestones were specific to infantile patients. In both infantile and juvenile patients, visceral signs preceded diagnosis and neurologic signs were noted at or shortly after diagnosis. Adult patients presented with a range of visceral, neurologic, and psychiatric signs in years preceding diagnosis. Patients on miglustat therapy for ≥1 year had a lower mean annual disease progression compared with those untreated/treated < 1 year (1.32 vs 3.54 points/year). A significant reduction in annual disease progression in infantile patients, and a trend towards reduced disease progression in juvenile patients after ≥1 year of miglustat treatment, translated into higher age at last contact or death in these groups.


          The type and onset of symptoms varied across age groups and were consistent with descriptions of NP-C within the literature. Miglustat treatment was associated with a reduced rate of disability score worsening in infantile and juvenile patients, both in agreement with increased age at last contact.

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          The online version of this article (10.1186/s13023-019-0996-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Miglustat in patients with Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C): a multicenter observational retrospective cohort study.

          Miglustat has been shown to stabilize disease progression in children, juveniles and adults with Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C), a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive neurological deterioration. We report findings from a retrospective observational cohort study assessing the effects of miglustat on neurological disease progression in patients treated in the clinical practice setting. Data from all NP-C patients prescribed miglustat at 25 expert centers were evaluated using a disease disability scale. The scale analyzed four key parameters of neurological disease progression in NP-C (ambulation, manipulation, language, swallowing). Mean individual parameter scores and a composite score were calculated at baseline (time of diagnosis) and up to 4 follow-up visits. Overall, 66 patients were included (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 9.7 [7.6] years, and at treatment start, 12.8 [9.5] years). The median (range) miglustat exposure was 1.46 (0.05-4.51) years. Mean annual progression was +0.11 score units/year from diagnosis to treatment start, indicating disease progression prior to therapy, and decreasing to -0.01 score units/year from treatment start to last clinic visit, indicating stabilization. Stabilization of neurological disease on miglustat was observed in all age groups, but the magnitude of the effect was greater in patients diagnosed in late childhood and in juveniles and adults. Stabilization of neurological disease was also observed in a subset of 19 patients with extended pre-treatment information. Overall, these data support previous clinical trial findings indicating clinically relevant beneficial effects of miglustat on neurological disease progression in patients with NP-C.
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            Linear clinical progression, independent of age of onset, in Niemann-Pick disease, type C.

            Niemann-Pick disease, type C is a neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder with a broad clinical spectrum and a variable age of onset. The absence of a universally accepted clinical outcome measure is an impediment to the design of a therapeutic trial for NPC. Thus, we developed a clinical severity scale to characterize and quantify disease progression. Clinical signs and symptoms in nine major (ambulation, cognition, eye movement, fine motor, hearing, memory, seizures, speech, and swallowing) and eight minor (auditory brainstem response, behavior, gelastic cataplexy, hyperreflexia, incontinence, narcolepsy, psychiatric, and respiratory problems) domains were scored. Data were collected from 18 current NPC patients and were extracted from records of 19 patients. Both patient cohorts showed a linear increase in severity scores over time. Cross-sectional evaluation of current patients showed a linear increase in the severity score. Longitudinal chart review of historical data demonstrated that although age of onset varied significantly, the rate of progression appeared linear, independent of age of onset, and similar in all patients. Combining the data from both cohorts, disease progression could be modeled by the following equation: ŝ(t0+x) = ŝ(t0) + 1.87x; where ŝ(t0) is the initial score and ŝ(t0+x) is the predicted future score after x years. Our observation that disease progression is similar across patients and independent of age of onset is consistent with a biphasic pathological model for NPC. This scale may prove useful in the characterization of potential biomarkers, and as an outcome measure to monitor disease progression in NPC patients. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Consensus clinical management guidelines for Niemann-Pick disease type C

              Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) is a progressive and life limiting autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. Mutations in these genes are associated with abnormal endosomal-lysosomal trafficking, resulting in the accumulation of multiple tissue specific lipids in the lysosomes. The clinical spectrum of NPC disease ranges from a neonatal rapidly progressive fatal disorder to an adult-onset chronic neurodegenerative disease. The age of onset of the first (beyond 3 months of life) neurological symptom may predict the severity of the disease and determines life expectancy. NPC has an estimated incidence of ~ 1: 100,000 and the rarity of the disease translate into misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis and barriers to good care. For these reasons, we have developed clinical guidelines that define standard of care for NPC patients, foster shared care arrangements between expert centres and family physicians, and empower patients. The information contained in these guidelines was obtained through a systematic review of the literature and the experiences of the authors in their care of patients with NPC. We adopted the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) system as method of choice for the guideline development process. We made a series of conclusive statements and scored them according to level of evidence, strengths of recommendations and expert opinions. These guidelines can inform care providers, care funders, patients and their carers of best practice of care for patients with NPC. In addition, these guidelines have identified gaps in the knowledge that must be filled by future research. It is anticipated that the implementation of these guidelines will lead to a step change in the quality of care for patients with NPC irrespective of their geographical location.

                Author and article information

                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                7 February 2019
                7 February 2019
                : 14
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0663 8628, GRID grid.411160.3, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, ; Passeig de Sant Joan de Deu, 2, Esplugues de Llobregat, 08950 Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0608 5535, GRID grid.470095.f, Department of Pediatrics, Centre for Inborn Errors of Metabolism, , Comenius University Children’s Hospital, ; Bratislava, Slovakia
                [3 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Paediatric Neurology Research Centre, , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Mofid Children Hospital, ; Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]ISNI 0000000109409708, GRID grid.7634.6, Department of Child Neurology, , Comenius University Medical School and National Institute of Children’s Diseases, ; Bratislava, Slovakia
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9100 9940, GRID grid.411798.2, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, , Charles University and General University Hospital, ; Prague, Czech Republic
                [6 ]Syntax for Science SL, Mallorca, Spain
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0439 5636, GRID grid.417650.1, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., ; Allschwil, Switzerland
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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