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      Scar quantification by cardiovascular magnetic resonance as an independent predictor of long-term survival in patients with ischemic heart failure treated by coronary artery bypass graft surgery

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          Abstract

          Background

          Scar burden by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is associated with functional recovery after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). There is limited data on long-term mortality after CABG based on left ventricular (LV) scar burden.

          Methods

          Patients who underwent LGE CMR between January 2003 and February 2010 within 1 month prior to CABG were included. A standard 16 segment model was used for scar quantification. A score of 1 for no scar, 2 for ≤ 50 % and 3 for > 50 % transmurality was assigned for each segment. LV scar score (LVSS) defined as the sum of segment scores divided by 16. All-cause mortality was ascertained by social security death index.

          Results

          One hundred ninety-six patients met the inclusion criteria. 185 CMR studies were available. History of prior MI was present in 64 % and prior CABG in 5.4 % of patients. Scar was present in 72 % of patients and median LVEF was 38 %. Over a median follow up of 8.3 years, there were 64 deaths (34.6 %). There was no statistically significant difference in mortality between Scar and No-scar groups (37 % versus 29 %). In the group with scar, a lower scar burden (defined either < 4 segments with scar or based on LVSS) was independently associated with increased survival.

          Conclusion

          In patients undergoing surgical revascularization, scar burden is negatively associated with survival in patients with scar. However, there is no difference in survival based on presence or absence of scar alone. CMR prior to CABG adds additional prognostic information.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Cardiovascular magnetic resonance, fibrosis, and prognosis in dilated cardiomyopathy.

          We studied the prognostic implications of midwall fibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in a prospective longitudinal study. Risk stratification of patients with nonischemic DCM in the era of device implantation is problematic. Approximately 30% of patients with DCM have midwall fibrosis as detected by late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), which may increase susceptibility to arrhythmia and progression of heart failure. Consecutive DCM patients (n = 101) with the presence or absence of midwall fibrosis were followed up prospectively for 658 +/- 355 days for events. Midwall fibrosis was present in 35% of patients and was associated with a higher rate of the predefined primary combined end point of all-cause death and hospitalization for a cardiovascular event (hazard ratio 3.4, p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed midwall fibrosis as the sole significant predictor of death or hospitalization. However, there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the 2 groups. Midwall fibrosis also predicted secondary outcome measures of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) (hazard ratio 5.2, p = 0.03). Midwall fibrosis remained predictive of SCD/VT after correction for baseline differences in left ventricular ejection fraction between the 2 groups. In DCM, midwall fibrosis determined by CMR is a predictor of the combined end point of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, which is independent of ventricular remodeling. In addition, midwall fibrosis by CMR predicts SCD/VT. This suggests a potential role for CMR in the risk stratification of patients with DCM, which may have value in determining the need for device therapy.
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            Impact of unrecognized myocardial scar detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging on event-free survival in patients presenting with signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease.

            Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can determine the extent of myocardial scar from infarction (MI). However, the prognostic significance of unrecognized myocardial scar by CMR in patients without a history of MI is unknown. One hundred ninety-five patients without a known prior MI underwent CMR for assessment of left ventricular (LV) function and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). We assessed the prognostic value of LGE and other CMR variables beyond the strongest clinical predictors and built the best overall models for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and cardiac mortality. During a median follow-up of 16 months, 31 patients (18%) experienced MACE, including 17 deaths. LGE demonstrated the strongest unadjusted associations with MACE and cardiac mortality (hazard ratios of 8.29 and 10.9, respectively; both P 7-fold increased risk for MACE. By multivariable analyses, LGE was independently associated with MACE beyond the clinical model (P<0.0001) or the clinical model combined with angiographically significant coronary stenosis (P=0.0007), LV ejection fraction (P=0.001), LV end-systolic volume index (P=0.0006), or segmental WMA (P=0.002). LGE remained the strongest predictor selected in the best overall models for MACE and cardiac mortality. Among patients with a clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease but without a history of MI, LGE involving a small amount of myocardium carries a high cardiac risk. In addition, LGE provides incremental prognostic value to MACE and cardiac mortality beyond common clinical, angiographic, and functional predictors.
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              Late gadolinium enhancement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance heralds an adverse prognosis in nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

              We examined whether the presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) predict adverse outcomes in nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients. Morbidity and mortality is high in NICM patients. However, the clinical course of an individual patient is unpredictable and current risk stratification approaches are limited. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance detects myocardial fibrosis, which appears as LGE after contrast administration and may convey prognostic importance. In a prospective cohort study, 65 NICM patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction < or =35% underwent CMR before placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The CMR images were analyzed for the presence and extent of LGE and for LV function, volumes, and mass. Patients were followed for an index composite end point of 3 cardiac events: hospitalization for heart failure, appropriate ICD firing, and cardiac death. A total of 42% (n = 27) of patients had CMR LGE, averaging 10 +/- 13% of LV mass. During a 17-month median follow-up, 44% (n = 12) of patients with LGE had an index composite outcome event versus only 8% (n = 3) of those without LGE (p < 0.001 for Kaplan-Meier survival curves). After adjustment for LV volume index and functional class, patients with LGE had an 8-fold higher risk of experiencing the primary outcome (hazard ratio 8.2, 95% confidence interval 2.2 to 30.9; p = 0.002). A CMR LGE in NICM patients strongly predicts adverse cardiac outcomes. The CMR LGE may represent the end-organ consequences of sustained adrenergic activation and adverse LV remodeling, and its identification may significantly improve risk stratification strategies in this high risk population. (Imaging Techniques for Identifying Factors of Sudden Cardiac Death Risk; NCT00181233).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                krish.kancharla@gmail.com
                gaby.weissman@medstar.net
                cardiologyfans@yahoo.com
                kalyan.kancherla@medstar.net
                samineniswetha@gmail.com
                peter.c.hill@medstar.net
                Steven.W.Boyce@Medstar.net
                fuisz@mac.com
                Journal
                J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
                J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
                Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
                BioMed Central (London )
                1097-6647
                1532-429X
                18 July 2016
                18 July 2016
                2016
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of cardiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 55905 MN USA
                [ ]Division of Cardiology, MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC USA
                [ ]Georgetown University, Washington, DC USA
                [ ]Department of cardiology, Cairo University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt
                [ ]Translational Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD USA
                [ ]MedStar Health Research Institute, Washington, DC USA
                [ ]Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC USA
                [ ]Mayo Clinic Health Systems, Austin, MN USA
                [ ]Department of Cardiac Surgery, MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC USA
                [ ]Division of Cardiology, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York, USA
                Article
                265
                10.1186/s12968-016-0265-y
                4950709
                27430331
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2016

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