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      Practical Aspects of Botulinum Toxin-A Treatment in Patients With Overactive Bladder Syndrome

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          Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injection is an effective treatment for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) that is refractory to antimuscarinics. An injectable dose of 100 U has been suggested to achieve the optimal balance of benefit and safety in patients with OAB. BoNT-A (total volume of 10 mL) was administered as evenly distributed intradetrusor injections (5 U) across 20 sites approximately 1 cm apart (0.5 mL per site) using a flexible or rigid cystoscope. Treatment with BoNT-A was generally well tolerated by most patients, and most treatment-related adverse events were localized to the urinary tract. The prevalence of OAB increases with age, and elderly patients are more vulnerable to complications. The short-term efficacy of intravesical BoNT-A injection for refractory OAB with no treatment-related complications in the elderly population has been documented. Frail elderly patients can experience the same treatment results, such as significantly improved urgent urinary incontinence and quality of life, as young and nonfrail elderly patients with 100-U BoNT-A injections. However, increased risk of larger postvoid residual (PVR) urine and lower long-term success rates were noted in frail elderly patients; around 11% had acute urinary retention, while 60% had PVR urine volume >150 mL after treatment. In addition, intravesical injection of BoNT-A effectively decreased urgency symptoms in elderly patients with OAB and central nervous system lesions. The adverse effects were acceptable, while the long-term effects were comparable to those in patients with OAB without central nervous system lesions. Nonetheless, the possibility of longstanding urinary retention and chronic catheterization in this vulnerable population requires careful evaluation before treatment with intravesical BoNT-A. In conclusion, the current findings indicate that intravesical BoNT-A is an effective and safe treatment for OAB in elderly patients.

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          EAU guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms including benign prostatic obstruction.

          To present a summary of the 2013 version of the European Association of Urology guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We conducted a literature search in computer databases for relevant articles published between 1966 and 31 October 2012. The Oxford classification system (2001) was used to determine the level of evidence for each article and to assign the grade of recommendation for each treatment modality. Men with mild symptoms are suitable for watchful waiting. All men with bothersome LUTS should be offered lifestyle advice prior to or concurrent with any treatment. Men with bothersome moderate-to-severe LUTS quickly benefit from α1-blockers. Men with enlarged prostates, especially those >40ml, profit from 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) that slowly reduce LUTS and the probability of urinary retention or the need for surgery. Antimuscarinics might be considered for patients who have predominant bladder storage symptoms. The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil can quickly reduce LUTS to a similar extent as α1-blockers, and it also improves erectile dysfunction. Desmopressin can be used in men with nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria. Treatment with an α1-blocker and 5-ARI (in men with enlarged prostates) or antimuscarinics (with persistent storage symptoms) combines the positive effects of either drug class to achieve greater efficacy. Prostate surgery is indicated in men with absolute indications or drug treatment-resistant LUTS due to benign prostatic obstruction. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the current standard operation for men with prostates 30-80ml, whereas open surgery or transurethral holmium laser enucleation is appropriate for men with prostates >80ml. Alternatives for monopolar TURP include bipolar TURP and transurethral incision of the prostate (for glands <30ml) and laser treatments. Transurethral microwave therapy and transurethral needle ablation are effective minimally invasive treatments with higher retreatment rates compared with TURP. Prostate stents are an alternative to catheterisation for men unfit for surgery. Ethanol or botulinum toxin injections into the prostate are still experimental. These symptom-oriented guidelines provide practical guidance for the management of men experiencing LUTS. The full version is available online ( Copyright © 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Diagnosis and treatment of overactive bladder (non-neurogenic) in adults: AUA/SUFU guideline.

            The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis and treatment of non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). The primary source of evidence for this guideline is the systematic review and data extraction conducted as part of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 187 titled Treatment of Overactive Bladder in Women (2009). That report searched PubMed, MEDLINE®, EMBASE and CINAHL for English-language studies published from January 1966 to October 2008. The AUA conducted additional literature searches to capture treatments not covered in detail by the AHRQ report and relevant articles published between October 2008 and December 2011. The review yielded an evidence base of 151 treatment articles after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. When sufficient evidence existed, the body of evidence for a particular treatment was assigned a strength rating of A (high), B (moderate) or C (low). Additional treatment information is provided as Clinical Principles and Expert Opinions when insufficient evidence existed. The evidence-based guideline statements are provided for diagnosis and overall management of the adult with OAB symptoms as well as for various treatments. The panel identified first through third line treatments as well as non-FDA approved, rarely applicable and treatments that should not be offered. The evidence-based statements are provided for diagnosis and overall management of OAB, as well as for the various treatments. Diagnosis and treatment methodologies can be expected to change as the evidence base grows and as new treatment strategies become obtainable. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Persistence with prescribed antimuscarinic therapy for overactive bladder: a UK experience.

              Study Type--Therapy (prevalence) Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Persistence with long-term medication in chronic diseases is typically low and that for overactive bladder medication is lower than average. Sub-optimal persistence is a major challenge for the successful management of overactive bladder. Using UK prescription data, persistence was generally low across the range of antimuscarinics. Patients aged 60 years and above were more likely to persist with prescribed oral antimuscarinic drugs than younger patients (40-59 years). Solifenacin was consistently associated with the highest rate of persistence compared with the other antimuscarinics included in the study • To describe the level of persistence for patients receiving antimuscarinics for overactive bladder (OAB) over a 12-month period based on real prescription data from the UK. • To investigate patterns of persistence with oral antimuscarinic drugs prescribed for OAB, across different age groups. • UK prescription data from a longitudinal patient database were analysed retrospectively to assess persistence with darifenacin, flavoxate, oxybutynin (extended release [ER] and immediate release [IR]), propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine (ER/IR) and trospium. • Data were extracted from the medical records of >1,200,000 registered patients via general practice software, and anonymized prescription data were collated for all eligible patients with documented OAB (n = 4833). • Data were collected on patients who started treatment between January 2007 and December 2007 and were collected up to December 2008, to allow each patient a full 12-month potential treatment period. Failure of persistence was declared after a gap of at least 1.5 times the length of the period of the most recent prescription. • The analysis included only patients who were new to a course of treatment (i.e. who had not been prescribed that particular treatment or dosage for at least 6 months before the study period). • The number of patients prescribed each antimuscarinic drug varied from 23 for darifenacin to 1758 for tolterodine ER. • The longest mean persistence was reported for solifenacin (187 days versus 77-157 days for the other treatments). • At 3 months, the proportions of patients still on their original treatment were: solifenacin 58%, darifenacin 52%, tolterodine ER 47%, propiverine 47%, tolterodine IR 46%, oxybutynin ER 44%, trospium 42%, oxybutynin IR 40%, flavoxate 28%. • At 12 months, the proportions of patients still on their original treatment were: solifenacin 35%, tolterodine ER 28%, propiverine 27%, oxybutynin ER 26%, trospium 26%, tolterodine IR 24%, oxybutynin IR 22%, darifenacin 17%, flavoxate 14%. • In a sub-analysis stratified by age, patients aged ≥ 60 years were more likely to persist with prescribed therapy over the 12-month period than those aged <60 years. • Twelve months after the initial prescription, persistence rates with pharmacotherapy in the context of OAB are generally low. • Solifenacin was associated with higher levels of persistence compared with other prescribed antimuscarinic agents. • Older people are more likely than younger patients to persist with prescribed therapy. Further studies are required to understand this finding and why patients are more likely to persist with one drug rather than another. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

                Author and article information

                Int Neurourol J
                Int Neurourol J
                International Neurourology Journal
                Korean Continence Society
                December 2015
                28 December 2015
                : 19
                : 4
                : 213-219
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Cardinal Tien Hospital and Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, Taiwan
                [2 ]Department of Urology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Hann-Chorng Kuo  Department of Urology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, 707, Section 3, Chung-Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan  E-mail: hck@ / Tel: +886-3-8561825 / Fax: +886-3-8560794
                Copyright © 2015 Korean Continence Society

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                urinary bladder, overactive, aged, botulinum toxins, type a


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