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      Effect of Caragana korshinskii Kom. as a partial substitution for sheep forage on intake, digestibility, growth, carcass features, and the rumen bacterial community


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          The aim of this study was to verify that Caragana korshinskii Kom. (CK) as a component of sheep forage influences lamb digestibility and rumen fermentation by altering the rumen microbial community. Hence, 12 female Tan sheep were allocated into 2 groups: receiving (CK group) or not (control group) 10% of the diet forage fraction with CK. During the 60-day experiment, growth performance, apparent digestibility, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and nitrogen balance were measured. Meanwhile, the rumen bacterial community diversity and composition were detected by the 16S rRNA sequence. The results indicated that the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fibre (ADF) tended to be higher (0.05 <  P < 0.10), and the feed conversion efficiency was improved ( P < 0.05) when CK was offered. Compared to those under alfalfa, the composition and abundance of the rumen microbial community were altered in the CK group, and the phylum Firmicutes, which is involved in promoting fibre digestion, increased in abundance. Moreover, VFAs tended to decrease (0.05 <  P < 0.10), and the molar proportion of butyrate declined; similarly, levels of hypoxanthine and xanthine were lower ( P < 0.05) in the sheep fed CK and may have been responsible for the decreased abundance of Fibrobacter spp., which are cellulolytic ruminal bacteria associated with VFA production.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11250-022-03186-8.

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          Transitions in bacterial communities along the 2000 km salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea.

          Salinity is a major factor controlling the distribution of biota in aquatic systems, and most aquatic multicellular organisms are either adapted to life in saltwater or freshwater conditions. Consequently, the saltwater-freshwater mixing zones in coastal or estuarine areas are characterized by limited faunal and floral diversity. Although changes in diversity and decline in species richness in brackish waters is well documented in aquatic ecology, it is unknown to what extent this applies to bacterial communities. Here, we report a first detailed bacterial inventory from vertical profiles of 60 sampling stations distributed along the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea, one of world's largest brackish water environments, generated using 454 pyrosequencing of partial (400 bp) 16S rRNA genes. Within the salinity gradient, bacterial community composition altered at broad and finer-scale phylogenetic levels. Analogous to faunal communities within brackish conditions, we identified a bacterial brackish water community comprising a diverse combination of freshwater and marine groups, along with populations unique to this environment. As water residence times in the Baltic Sea exceed 3 years, the observed bacterial community cannot be the result of mixing of fresh water and saltwater, but our study represents the first detailed description of an autochthonous brackish microbiome. In contrast to the decline in the diversity of multicellular organisms, reduced bacterial diversity at brackish conditions could not be established. It is possible that the rapid adaptation rate of bacteria has enabled a variety of lineages to fill what for higher organisms remains a challenging and relatively unoccupied ecological niche.
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            The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review

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              Effect of DNA Extraction Methods and Sampling Techniques on the Apparent Structure of Cow and Sheep Rumen Microbial Communities

              Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes . Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data from studies in which different sampling techniques, different rumen sample fractions or different DNA extraction methods were used should be avoided.

                Author and article information

                Trop Anim Health Prod
                Trop Anim Health Prod
                Tropical Animal Health and Production
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                20 May 2022
                20 May 2022
                : 54
                : 3
                [1 ]GRID grid.9227.e, ISNI 0000000119573309, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; No.1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.9227.e, ISNI 0000000119573309, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Lanzhou, 730000 China
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funded by: the national key r&d program of china
                Award ID: 2016YFC0500709
                Funded by: the strategic priority research program of the chinese academy of sciences
                Award ID: XDA26040305
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: the key projects of chinese academy of sciences
                Award ID: KFZD-SW-219
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                © Springer Nature B.V. 2022

                Animal science & Zoology
                caragana,rumen microbiota,nitrogen utilisation,volatile fatty acids,tan sheep


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