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      Microbial protection and virulence in periodontal tissue as a function of polymicrobial communities: symbiosis and dysbiosis

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      Periodontology 2000
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Abstract

          This review discusses polymicrobial interactions with the host in both health and disease. As our ability to identify specific bacterial clonal types, with respect to their abundance and location in the oral biofilm, improves, we will learn more concerning their contribution to both oral health and disease. Recent studies examining host- bacteria interactions have revealed that commensal bacteria not only protect the host simply by niche occupation, but that bacterial interactions with host tissue can promote the development of proper tissue structure and function. These data indicate that our host-associated polymicrobial communities, such as those found in the oral cavity, co-evolved with us and have become an integral part of who we are. Understanding the microbial community factors that underpin the associations with host tissue that contribute to periodontal health may also reveal how dysbiotic periodontopathic oral communities disrupt normal periodontal tissue functions in disease. A disruption of the oral microbial community creates dysbiosis, either by overgrowth of specific or nonspecific microorganisms or by changes in the local host response where the community can now support a disease state. Dysbiosis provides the link between systemic changes (e.g. diabetes) and exogenous risk factors (e.g. smoking), and the dysbiotic community, and can drive the destruction of periodontal tissue. Many other risk factors associated with periodontal disease, such as stress, aging and genetics, are also likely to affect the microbial community, and more research is needed, utilizing sophisticated bacterial taxonomic techniques, to elucidate these effects on the microbiome and to develop strategies to target the dysbiotic mechanisms and improve periodontal health.

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          Most cited references48

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          Periodontitis: a polymicrobial disruption of host homeostasis.

          Periodontitis, or gum disease, affects millions of people each year. Although it is associated with a defined microbial composition found on the surface of the tooth and tooth root, the contribution of bacteria to disease progression is poorly understood. Commensal bacteria probably induce a protective response that prevents the host from developing disease. However, several bacterial species found in plaque (the 'red-complex' bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola) use various mechanisms to interfere with host defence mechanisms. Furthermore, disease may result from 'community-based' attack on the host. Here, I describe the interaction of the host immune system with the oral bacteria in healthy states and in diseased states.
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            The microbial pan-genome.

            A decade after the beginning of the genomic era, the question of how genomics can describe a bacterial species has not been fully addressed. Experimental data have shown that in some species new genes are discovered even after sequencing the genomes of several strains. Mathematical modeling predicts that new genes will be discovered even after sequencing hundreds of genomes per species. Therefore, a bacterial species can be described by its pan-genome, which is composed of a "core genome" containing genes present in all strains, and a "dispensable genome" containing genes present in two or more strains and genes unique to single strains. Given that the number of unique genes is vast, the pan-genome of a bacterial species might be orders of magnitude larger than any single genome.
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              Interactions between commensal intestinal bacteria and the immune system.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Periodontology 2000
                Periodontol 2000
                Wiley-Blackwell
                09066713
                October 2015
                October 07 2015
                : 69
                : 1
                : 18-27
                Article
                10.1111/prd.12087
                4530467
                26252399
                53aa1007-4b7b-49c8-9c0c-ac3e51e90513
                © 2015

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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