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      A molecularly imprinted polymer as solid phase extraction sorbent for ketoprofen determination in water and artificial serum prior to HPLC


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          Ketoprofen (KET) is an active pharmaceutical compound that has pain relieving and antipyretic effects. Its determination in body fluids and environmental waters is important due to widespread use of the compound. In this study, a selective and reliable method has been developed for the determination of ketoprofen in water and artificial serum using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as a solid phase extraction sorbent prior to HPLC-DAD detection. The MIP was synthesized by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and trimethylpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) in the presence of ketoprofen as the template. For the sake of comparison, nonimprinted polymer (NIP) was also synthesized under the same experimental conditions without the addition of ketoprofen under the same experimental conditions. Critical extraction parameters such as sample pH, shaking time and sorbent amount were optimized and adjusted to 8.0, 24 h, and 10.0 mg, respectively, for a sample volume of 10.0 mL. MIP showed higher selectivity than NIP towards ketoprofen in an artificial matrix containing another pain relieving drug, ibuprofen, and a cardiovascular drug, metoprolol. The proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of ketoprofen in spiked drinking water, tap water, and artificial serum samples, and showed satisfactory results with respective recoveries of 96.8 % (± 0.8), 93.7% (± 0.6), 62.2% (± 0.6), and 69.9% (± 0.6).

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          Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals

          Low levels of human medicines (pharmaceuticals) have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents, surface waters, seawaters, groundwater and some drinking waters. For some pharmaceuticals effects on aquatic organisms have been investigated in acute toxicity assays. The chronic toxicity and potential subtle effects are only marginally known, however. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about human pharmaceuticals in the environment and address several key questions. What kind of pharmaceuticals and what concentrations occur in the aquatic environment? What is the fate in surface water and in STP? What are the modes of action of these compounds in humans and are there similar targets in lower animals? What acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects may be elicited by pharmaceuticals and by mixtures? What are the effect concentrations and how do they relate to environmental levels? Our review shows that only very little is known about long-term effects of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms, in particular with respect to biological targets. For most human medicines analyzed, acute effects to aquatic organisms are unlikely, except for spills. For investigated pharmaceuticals chronic lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) in standard laboratory organisms are about two orders of magnitude higher than maximal concentrations in STP effluents. For diclofenac, the LOEC for fish toxicity was in the range of wastewater concentrations, whereas the LOEC of propranolol and fluoxetine for zooplankton and benthic organisms were near to maximal measured STP effluent concentrations. In surface water, concentrations are lower and so are the environmental risks. However, targeted ecotoxicological studies are lacking almost entirely and such investigations are needed focusing on subtle environmental effects. This will allow better and comprehensive risk assessments of pharmaceuticals in the future.
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            A radiotracer study of the adsorption behavior of aqueous Ba(2+) ions on nanoparticles of zero-valent iron.

            Recently, iron nanoparticles are increasingly being tested as adsorbents for various types of organic and inorganic pollutants. In this study, nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) synthesized under atmospheric conditions were employed for the removal of Ba(2+) ions in a concentration range 10(-3) to 10(-6) M. Throughout the study, (133)Ba was used as a tracer to study the effects of time, concentration, and temperature. The obtained data was analyzed using various kinetic models and adsorption isotherms. Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model provided the best correlation with the obtained data. Observed thermodynamic parameters showed that the process is exothermic and hence enthalpy-driven.
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              Simultaneous determination of human pharmaceuticals in water samples by solid phase extraction and HPLC with UV-fluorescence detection


                Author and article information

                Turk J Chem
                Turk J Chem
                Turkish Journal of Chemistry
                Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK)
                19 July 2022
                : 46
                : 6
                : 1853-1865
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry, İzmir Institute of Technology, İzmir, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, İzmir Institute of Technology, İzmir, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
                [4 ]Department of Chemistry, Birzeit University, Ramallah, West Bank, Palestine
                Author notes
                Author information
                © TÜBİTAK

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 01 March 2022
                : 19 December 2022
                : 19 July 2022
                Research Article

                ketoprofen,molecular imprinted polymers,solid phase extraction,high performance liquid chromatography,nsaids


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