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      Analysis of Workflow and Time to Treatment and the Effects on Outcome in Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results from the SWIFT PRIME Randomized Controlled Trial

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          Abstract

          Purpose To study the relationship between functional independence and time to reperfusion in the Solitaire with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) trial in patients with disabling acute ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular therapy plus intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration versus tPA administration alone and to investigate variables that affect time spent during discrete steps. Materials and Methods Data were analyzed from the SWIFT PRIME trial, a global, multicenter, prospective study in which outcomes were compared in patients treated with intravenous tPA alone or in combination with the Solitaire device (Covidien, Irvine, Calif). Between December 2012 and November 2014, 196 patients were enrolled. The relation between time from (a) symptom onset to reperfusion and (b) imaging to reperfusion and clinical outcome was analyzed, along with patient and health system characteristics that affect discrete steps in patient workflow. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between time and outcome; negative binomial regression was used to evaluate effects on workflow. The institutional review board at each site approved the trial. Patients provided written informed consent, or, at select sites, there was an exception from having to acquire explicit informed consent in emergency circumstances. Results In the stent retriever arm of the study, symptom onset to reperfusion time of 150 minutes led to 91% estimated probability of functional independence, which decreased by 10% over the next hour and by 20% with every subsequent hour of delay. Time from arrival at the emergency department to arterial access was 90 minutes (interquartile range, 69-120 minutes), and time to reperfusion was 129 minutes (interquartile range, 108-169 minutes). Patients who initially arrived at a referring facility had longer symptom onset to groin puncture times compared with patients who presented directly to the endovascular-capable center (275 vs 179.5 minutes, P < .001). Conclusion Fast reperfusion leads to improved functional outcome among patients with acute stroke treated with stent retrievers. Detailed attention to workflow with iterative feedback and aggressive time goals may have contributed to efficient workflow environments. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Time to treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and outcome from acute ischemic stroke.

          Randomized clinical trials suggest the benefit of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in acute ischemic stroke is time dependent. However, modest sample sizes have limited characterization of the extent to which onset to treatment (OTT) time influences outcome; and the generalizability of findings to clinical practice is uncertain. To evaluate the degree to which OTT time is associated with outcome among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intraveneous tPA. Data were analyzed from 58,353 patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with tPA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset in 1395 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Program, April 2003 to March 2012. Relationship between OTT time and in-hospital mortality, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, ambulatory status at discharge, and discharge destination. Among the 58,353 tPA-treated patients, median age was 72 years, 50.3% were women, median OTT time was 144 minutes (interquartile range, 115-170), 9.3% (5404) had OTT time of 0 to 90 minutes, 77.2% (45,029) had OTT time of 91 to 180 minutes, and 13.6% (7920) had OTT time of 181 to 270 minutes. Median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale documented in 87.7% of patients was 11 (interquartile range, 6-17). Patient factors most strongly associated with shorter OTT included greater stroke severity (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% CI, 2.5-3.1 per 5-point increase), arrival by ambulance (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 4.5-7.3), and arrival during regular hours (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 3.8-5.4). Overall, there were 5142 (8.8%) in-hospital deaths, 2873 (4.9%) patients had intracranial hemorrhage, 19,491 (33.4%) patients achieved independent ambulation at hospital discharge, and 22,541 (38.6%) patients were discharged to home. Faster OTT, in 15-minute increments, was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98; P < .001), reduced symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98; P < .001), increased achievement of independent ambulation at discharge (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05; P < .001), and increased discharge to home (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04; P < .001). In a registry representing US clinical practice, earlier thrombolytic treatment was associated with reduced mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and higher rates of independent ambulation at discharge and discharge to home following acute ischemic stroke. These findings support intensive efforts to accelerate hospital presentation and thrombolytic treatment in patients with stroke.
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            Strategies for reducing the door-to-balloon time in acute myocardial infarction.

            Prompt reperfusion treatment is essential for patients who have myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. Guidelines recommend that the interval between arrival at the hospital and intracoronary balloon inflation (door-to-balloon time) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention should be 90 minutes or less. However, few hospitals meet this objective. We sought to identify hospital strategies that were significantly associated with a faster door-to-balloon time. We surveyed 365 hospitals to determine whether each of 28 specific strategies was in use. We used hierarchical generalized linear models and data on patients from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to determine the association between hospital strategies and the door-to-balloon time. In multivariate analysis, six strategies were significantly associated with a faster door-to-balloon time. These strategies included having emergency medicine physicians activate the catheterization laboratory (mean reduction in door-to-balloon time, 8.2 minutes), having a single call to a central page operator activate the laboratory (13.8 minutes), having the emergency department activate the catheterization laboratory while the patient is en route to the hospital (15.4 minutes), expecting staff to arrive in the catheterization laboratory within 20 minutes after being paged (vs. >30 minutes) (19.3 minutes), having an attending cardiologist always on site (14.6 minutes), and having staff in the emergency department and the catheterization laboratory use real-time data feedback (8.6 minutes). Despite the effectiveness of these strategies, only a minority of hospitals surveyed were using them. Several specific hospital strategies are associated with a significant reduction in the door-to-balloon time in the management of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Good clinical outcome after ischemic stroke with successful revascularization is time-dependent.

              Trials of IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) have demonstrated that longer times from ischemic stroke symptom onset to initiation of treatment are associated with progressively lower likelihoods of clinical benefit, and likely no benefit beyond 4.5 hours. How the timing of IV rt-PA initiation relates to timing of restoration of blood flow has been unclear. An understanding of the relationship between timing of angiographic reperfusion and clinical outcome is needed to establish time parameters for intraarterial (IA) therapies. The Interventional Management of Stroke pilot trials tested combined IV/IA therapy for moderate-to-severe ischemic strokes within 3 hours from symptom onset. To isolate the effect of time to angiographic reperfusion on clinical outcome, we analyzed only middle cerebral artery and distal internal carotid artery occlusions with successful reperfusion (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2-3) during the interventional procedure (<7 hours). Time to angiographic reperfusion was defined as time from stroke onset to procedure termination. Good clinical outcome was defined as modified Rankin Score 0-2 at 3 months. Among the 54 cases, only time to angiographic reperfusion and age independently predicted good clinical outcome after angiographic reperfusion. The probability of good clinical outcome decreased as time to angiographic reperfusion increased (unadjusted p = 0.02, adjusted p = 0.01) and approached that of cases without angiographic reperfusion within 7 hours. We provide evidence that good clinical outcome following angiographically successful reperfusion is significantly time-dependent. At later times, angiographic reperfusion may be associated with a poor risk-benefit ratio in unselected patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Radiology
                Radiology
                Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)
                0033-8419
                1527-1315
                June 2016
                June 2016
                : 279
                : 3
                : 888-897
                Article
                10.1148/radiol.2016160204
                27092472
                © 2016
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