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      Measuring Co-Authorship and Networking-Adjusted Scientific Impact

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      1 , 2 , *
      PLoS ONE
      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Appraisal of the scientific impact of researchers, teams and institutions with productivity and citation metrics has major repercussions. Funding and promotion of individuals and survival of teams and institutions depend on publications and citations. In this competitive environment, the number of authors per paper is increasing and apparently some co-authors don't satisfy authorship criteria. Listing of individual contributions is still sporadic and also open to manipulation. Metrics are needed to measure the networking intensity for a single scientist or group of scientists accounting for patterns of co-authorship. Here, I define I 1 for a single scientist as the number of authors who appear in at least I 1 papers of the specific scientist. For a group of scientists or institution, I n is defined as the number of authors who appear in at least I n papers that bear the affiliation of the group or institution. I 1 depends on the number of papers authored N p . The power exponent R of the relationship between I 1 and N p categorizes scientists as solitary ( R>2.5), nuclear ( R = 2.25–2.5), networked ( R = 2–2.25), extensively networked ( R = 1.75–2) or collaborators ( R<1.75). R may be used to adjust for co-authorship networking the citation impact of a scientist. I n similarly provides a simple measure of the effective networking size to adjust the citation impact of groups or institutions. Empirical data are provided for single scientists and institutions for the proposed metrics. Cautious adoption of adjustments for co-authorship and networking in scientific appraisals may offer incentives for more accountable co-authorship behaviour in published articles.

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          Most cited references38

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          The history and meaning of the journal impact factor.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2008
                23 July 2008
                : 3
                : 7
                : e2778
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Ioannina, Greece
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
                Université de Toulouse, France
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JPAI. Analyzed the data: JPAI. Wrote the paper: JPAI. Invented the proposed metrics: JPAI.

                Article
                08-PONE-RA-04283R1
                10.1371/journal.pone.0002778
                2464713
                18648663
                54864ad0-e7b1-41cf-9739-7c98b33ebc52
                Ioannidis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                History
                : 11 April 2008
                : 20 June 2008
                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physics
                Science Policy
                Science Policy/Education

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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