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      Dietary and Lifestyle Factors Related to Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Systematic Review

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          We performed this review to clarify which dietary and lifestyle factors are related to gastroesophageal reflux disease. Through a systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese BioMedical Literature (CBM) databases, we identified articles with clear definitions of GERD, including nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (NERD), reflux esophagitis (RE) and Barrett’s esophagus (BE), that included dietary and lifestyle factors as independent factors affecting the onset of GERD (expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)). Due to heterogeneity among the studies, we used descriptive statistical analyses to analyze and synthesize each outcome based on the disease type. In total, 72 articles were included, conducted in ten Western countries (26 articles in total) and nine Eastern countries (46 articles in total). We categorized dietary factors into 20 items and lifestyle factors into 11 items. GERD is related to many irregular dietary and lifestyle habits (such as a habit of midnight snacking: OR=5.08, 95% CI 4.03–6.4; skipping breakfast: OR=2.7, 95% CI 2.17–3.35; eating quickly: OR=4.06, 95% CI 3.11–5.29; eating very hot foods: OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.37–2.4; and eating beyond fullness: OR=2.85, 95% CI 2.18–3.73). Vegetarian diets (consumption of nonvegetarian food (no/yes); OR=0.34, 95% CI 0.211–0.545) and no intake of meat (OR=0.841, 95% CI 0.715–0.990) were negatively related to GERD, while meat (daily meat, fish, and egg intake: OR=1.088, 95% CI 1.042-1.135) and fat (high–fat diet: OR=7.568, 95% CI 4.557–8.908) consumption were positively related to GERD. An interval of less than three hours between dinner and bedtime (OR=7.45, 95% CI 3.38–16.4) was positively related to GERD, and proper physical exercise (physical exercise >30 minutes (>3 times/week): OR=0.7, 95% CI 0.6–0.9) was negatively correlated with GERD. Smoking (OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.12–1.264), alcohol consumption (OR=1.278, 95% CI 1.207–1.353) and mental state (poor mental state: OR=1.278, 95% CI 1.207–1.353) were positively correlated with GERD. RE (vitamin C: OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.24–0.90) and BE (vitamin C: OR=0.44,95% CI 0.2-0.98; vitamin E: OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.83) were generally negatively correlated with antioxidant intake. In conclusion, many dietary and lifestyle factors affect the onset of GERD, and these factors differ among regions and disease types. These findings need to be further confirmed in subsequent studies.

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          Most cited references 104

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          Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux.

          The aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux is largely unknown. The authors' aim was to examine the relation between lifestyle habits and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Participants of two consecutive public health surveys in Nord-Trondelag, Norway. In a case control study within the two public health surveys, 3153 individuals who in the second survey reported severe heartburn or regurgitation during the last 12 months were defined as cases, while 40 210 people without reflux symptoms constituted the control group. The risk of reflux symptoms was estimated and multivariately calculated as odds ratios in relation to exposure to tobacco smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, table salt, cereal fibres, and physical exercise. There was a significant dose response association between tobacco smoking and reflux symptoms. Among people who had smoked daily for more than 20 years the odds ratio was 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 1.9) compared with non-smokers. A similar positive association was found for table salt intake. The odds ratio for reflux was 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) among those who always used extra table salt compared with those who never did so. We found moderately strong negative associations between the risk of reflux and exposure to coffee, bread high in dietary fibre content, and frequent physical exercise. Intake of alcohol or tea did not affect the risk of reflux. Tobacco smoking and table salt intake seem to be risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Dietary fibres and physical exercise may protect against reflux. Alcohol, coffee, and tea do not seem to be risk factors for reflux.
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            The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus.

            A globally acceptable definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is desirable for research and clinical practice. The aim of this initiative was to develop a consensus definition and classification that would be useful for patients, physicians, and regulatory agencies. A modified Delphi process was employed to reach consensus using repeated iterative voting. A series of statements was developed by a working group of five experts after a systematic review of the literature in three databases (Embase, Cochrane trials register, Medline). Over a period of 2 yr, the statements were developed, modified, and approved through four rounds of voting. The voting group consisted of 44 experts from 18 countries. The final vote was conducted on a 6-point scale and consensus was defined a priori as agreement by two-thirds of the participants. The level of agreement strengthened throughout the process with two-thirds of the participants agreeing with 86%, 88%, 94%, and 100% of statements at each vote, respectively. At the final vote, 94% of the final 51 statements were approved by 90% of the Consensus Group, and 90% of statements were accepted with strong agreement or minor reservation. GERD was defined as a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. The disease was subclassified into esophageal and extraesophageal syndromes. Novel aspects of the new definition include a patient-centered approach that is independent of endoscopic findings, subclassification of the disease into discrete syndromes, and the recognition of laryngitis, cough, asthma, and dental erosions as possible GERD syndromes. It also proposes a new definition for suspected and proven Barrett's esophagus. Evidence-based global consensus definitions are possible despite differences in terminology and language, prevalence, and manifestations of the disease in different countries. A global consensus definition for GERD may simplify disease management, allow collaborative research, and make studies more generalizable, assisting patients, physicians, and regulatory agencies.
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              Global prevalence of, and risk factors for, gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms: a meta-analysis.

              Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms are common in the community, but there has been no definitive systematic review and meta-analysis of data from all studies to estimate their global prevalence, or potential risk factors for them.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                15 April 2021
                : 17
                : 305-323
                [1 ]Graduate College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
                [2 ]Gastroenterology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
                [3 ]Department of Preventive Medicine and Health Statistics, College of Basic Medical Science, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
                [4 ]Baiyun Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zheng-Kun Hou Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou, 510405, Guangdong, ChinaTel +86 020–36591314 Email fenghou5128@126.com
                © 2021 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 11, References: 104, Pages: 19
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                Funded by: Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China;
                This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81774450) and Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2017A020215107).


                gastroesophageal reflux disease, diet, lifestyle, systematic review


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