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      Common features in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage following superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass in steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease☆

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          Five patients treated for intracranial cerebral hemorrhage after superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass in Xuwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, from 2005-2011 were included in this study. Prior to superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass, all patients showed diminished cerebrovascular reactivity and an ipsilateral ischemic lesion. Intracranial cerebral hemorrhage developed within 1–4 days following superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass. Transcranial Doppler showed increased middle cerebral artery velocity of 50–100% in the operated hemisphere. These findings suggested that focal hyperperfusion, an ipsilateral ischemic lesion and diminished cerebrovascular reactivity are the important characteristics of intracerebral hemorrhage following superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass in patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

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          To determine whether bypass surgery would benefit patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the internal carotid artery, we studied 1377 patients with recent hemisphere strokes, retinal infarction, or transient ischemic attacks who had atherosclerotic narrowing or occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. Of these, 714 were randomly assigned to the best medical care, and 663 to the same regimen with the addition of bypass surgery joining the superficial temporal artery and the middle cerebral artery. The patients were followed for an average of 55.8 months. Thirty-day surgical mortality and major stroke morbidity rates were 0.6 and 2.5 per cent, respectively. The postoperative bypass patency rate was 96 per cent. Nonfatal and fatal stroke occurred both more frequently and earlier in the patients operated on. Secondary survival analyses comparing the two groups for major strokes and all deaths, for all strokes and all deaths, and for ipsilateral ischemic strokes demonstrated a similar lack of benefit from surgery. Separate analyses in patients with different angiographic lesions did not identify a subgroup with any benefit from surgery. Two important subgroups of patients fared substantially worse in the surgical group: those with severe middle-cerebral-artery stenosis (n = 109, Mantel-Haenszel chi-square = 4.74), and those with persistence of ischemic symptoms after an internal-carotid-artery occlusion had been demonstrated (n = 287, chi-square = 4.04). This study thus failed to confirm the hypothesis that extracranial-intracranial anastomosis is effective in preventing cerebral ischemia in patients with atherosclerotic arterial disease in the carotid and middle cerebral arteries.
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            Edaravone, a novel free radical scavenger, demonstrates neuroprotective effects by inhibiting vascular endothelial cell injury and ameliorating neuronal damage in ischemic brain models. The present study was undertaken to verify its therapeutic efficacy following acute ischemic stroke. We performed a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study on acute ischemic stroke patients commencing within 72 h of onset. Edaravone was infused at a dose of 30 mg, twice a day, for 14 days. At discharge within 3 months or at 3 months after onset, the functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale. Two hundred and fifty-two patients were initially enrolled. Of these, 125 were allocated to the edaravone group and 125 to the placebo group for analysis. Two patients were excluded because of subarachnoid hemorrhage and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A significant improvement in functional outcome was observed in the edaravone group as evaluated by the modified Rankin Scale (p = 0.0382). Edaravone represents a neuroprotective agent which is potentially useful for treating acute ischemic stroke, since it can exert significant effects on functional outcome as compared with placebo.
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              Prevalence and clinicoepidemiological features of moyamoya disease in Japan: findings from a nationwide epidemiological survey.

              The objectives of the present study were to estimate an annual number of patients with moyamoya disease in Japan and to describe the clinicoepidemiological features of the disease. The study consisted of 2 questionnaire surveys, which were distributed to randomly selected departments of neurosurgery, internal medicine, neurology, cerebrovascular medicine, and pediatrics in hospitals throughout Japan. The first survey inquired about the number of the patients treated in 2003, and the second requested additional detailed clinicoepidemiological information about each patient identified in the first survey. In 2003, the total number of patients treated in Japan was estimated at 7700 (95% confidence interval, 6300 to 9300). Sex ratio (women to men) of the patients was 1.8. For men, the peak of moyamoya disease was observed in patients aged 10 to 14 years and for women aged 20 to 24 years. Annual rate of newly diagnosed cases in 2003 was 0.54 per 100,000 population. Family history of moyamoya disease was found in 12.1% of the patients. The majority (77.9%) were treated as outpatients. Although the clinicoepidemiological features of the patients in the present study were almost similar to those obtained in previous ones, the estimated prevalence of moyamoya disease in Japan has almost doubled during the recent decade (3900 in 1994 and 7700 in 2003). The increase could partly be explained by the increase in newly diagnosed cases (0.35 in 1994 and 0.54 in 2003 per 100,000 population).

                Author and article information

                Neural Regen Res
                Neural Regen Res
                Neural Regeneration Research
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                15 July 2012
                : 7
                : 20
                : 1585-1590
                Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China
                Author notes

                Zhiqi Mao, Studying for doctorate, Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China

                Corresponding author: Feng Ling, Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China ling-feng@ . (N20120524001/H)

                Author contributions: All authors were responsible for data collection and evaluation, study design and implementation.

                Copyright: © Neural Regeneration Research

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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