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      BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Recent advances in management of highly stressed, newly received feedlot cattle

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          Abstract

          Morbidity and mortality from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and associated losses in performance and carcass merit continue to plague the beef cattle industry. Several viral/bacterial agents are responsible for BRD, and interactions occur among the agents. Viral agents often predispose animals to bacterial infections, and Mannheimia haemolytica is the most frequently isolated organism in cattle with BRD. Laboratory tests are available to characterize organisms causing BRD using easily obtained nasal swab samples. Testing for persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus can be done by a 2-stage technique using PCR and immunohistochemistry. Preconditioning programs that include preweaning viral vaccination programs along with castration could have a significant influence on decreasing BRD in the cattle feeding industry. Metaphylactic antibiotic programs continue to be effective; however, antibiotic resistance is a public concern, and additional management options (e.g., direct-fed microbials or other compounds with antimicrobial properties) deserve attention. Diets with an increased energy concentration achieved by decreasing the dietary roughage concentration may slightly increase the rate of BRD morbidity; however, these diets also increase ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with lower-energy, greater-roughage diets. The extent to which performance and BRD morbidity are affected by dietary protein concentration needs further study, but low and high protein concentrations should probably be avoided. Several trace minerals (e.g., Cu, Se, and Zn) affect immune function, but the effects of supplementation on performance and immune function in model challenge systems and in field studies are equivocal. Adding vitamin E to receiving diets at pharmacological levels (e.g., >1,000 IU·animal −1·day −1) seems beneficial for decreasing BRD morbidity, but it has little effect on performance. Given the limited ability to consistently modify immune function and BRD morbidity through dietary manipulations, we recommend that the diets for newly received cattle be formulated to adjust nutrient concentrations for low feed intake and to provide optimal performance during the receiving period.

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          Most cited references126

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          Adult mammals respond to tissue damage by implementing the acute phase response, which comprises a series of specific physiological reactions. This review outlines the principal cellular and molecular mechanisms that control initiation of the tissue response at the site of injury, the recruitment of the systemic defense mechanisms, the acute phase response of the liver and the resolution of the acute phase response.
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            Low birthweight is now known to be associated with increased rates of coronary heart disease and the related disorders stroke, hypertension and non-insulin dependent diabetes. These associations have been extensively replicated in studies in different countries and are not the result of confounding variables. They extend across the normal range of birthweight and depend on lower birthweights in relation to the duration of gestation rather than the effects of premature birth. The associations are thought to be consequences of 'programming', whereby a stimulus or insult at a critical, sensitive period of early life has permanent effects on structure, physiology and metabolism. Programming of the fetus may result from adaptations invoked when the materno-placental nutrient supply fails to match the fetal nutrient demand. Although the influences that impair fetal development and programme adult cardiovascular disease remain to be defined, there are strong pointers to the importance of maternal body composition and dietary balance during pregnancy.
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              Selenium in the immune system.

              Selenium as an essential component of selenocysteine-containing protein is involved in most aspects of cell biochemistry and function. As such, there is much potential for selenium to influence the immune system. For example, the antioxidant glutathione peroxidases are likely to protect neutrophils from oxygen-derived radicals that are produced to kill ingested foreign organisms. When the functions of all selenoproteins are described, only then will it be possible to fully understand their role in maintaining optimal immune function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Anim Sci
                J. Anim. Sci
                ansci
                Journal of Animal Science
                Oxford University Press
                0021-8812
                1525-3163
                March 2007
                : 85
                : 3
                : 823-840
                Affiliations
                [* ]Department of Animal Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson 85721-0038
                []Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock 79409-2141
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding author: gduff@ 123456ag.arizona.edu
                Article
                10.2527/jas.2006-501
                7109667
                17085724
                582e1735-e373-4df6-8b78-9cdfa84a60d3
                Copyright 2007 Journal of Animal Science

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                History
                : 23 October 2006
                : 25 July 2006
                Page count
                Pages: 18
                Categories
                Animal Production
                Management

                bovine respiratory disease,cattle,management,morbidity,nutrition

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