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      Multiplex Detection of Different Magnetic Beads Using Frequency Scanning in Magnetic Frequency Mixing Technique

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          Abstract

          In modern bioanalytical methods, it is often desired to detect several targets in one sample within one measurement. Immunological methods including those that use superparamagnetic beads are an important group of techniques for these applications. The goal of this work is to investigate the feasibility of simultaneously detecting different superparamagnetic beads acting as markers using the magnetic frequency mixing technique. The frequency of the magnetic excitation field is scanned while the lower driving frequency is kept constant. Due to the particles’ nonlinear magnetization, mixing frequencies are generated. To record their amplitude and phase information, a direct digitization of the pickup-coil’s signal with subsequent Fast Fourier Transformation is performed. By synchronizing both magnetic fields, a stable phase information is gained. In this research, it is shown that the amplitude of the dominant mixing component is proportional to the amount of superparamagnetic beads inside a sample. Additionally, it is shown that the phase does not show this behaviour. Excitation frequency scans of different bead types were performed, showing different phases, without correlation to their diverse amplitudes. Two commercially available beads were selected and a determination of their amount in a mixture is performed as a demonstration for multiplex measurements.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

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            Chip-NMR biosensor for detection and molecular analysis of cells.

            Rapid and accurate measurement of biomarkers in tissue and fluid samples is a major challenge in medicine. Here we report the development of a new, miniaturized diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR) system for multiplexed, quantitative and rapid analysis. By using magnetic particles as a proximity sensor to amplify molecular interactions, the handheld DMR system can perform measurements on unprocessed biological samples. We show the capability of the DMR system by using it to detect bacteria with high sensitivity, identify small numbers of cells and analyze them on a molecular level in real time, and measure a series of protein biomarkers in parallel. The DMR technology shows promise as a robust and portable diagnostic device.
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              Detection of a single magnetic microbead using a miniaturized silicon Hall sensor

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                07 June 2019
                June 2019
                : 19
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Complex Systems Bioelectronics (ICS-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; s.achtsnicht@ 123456fz-juelich.de (S.A.); a.pourshahidi@ 123456fz-juelich.de (A.M.P.); a.offenhaeusser@ 123456fz-juelich.de (A.O.)
                [2 ]RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: h.-j.krause@ 123456fz-juelich.de ; Tel.: +49-2461-61-2955
                Article
                sensors-19-02599
                10.3390/s19112599
                6603599
                31181672
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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