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      Risk factors for calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity after renal transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Nephrotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is the major concern for long-term allograft survival despite its predominant role in current immunosuppressive regime after renal transplantation. CNI nephrotoxicity is multifactorial with demographic, environmental, and pharmacogenetic flexibility, whereas studies indicating risk factors for CNI nephrotoxicity obtained incomplete or conflicting results.

          Methods

          A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for CNI nephrotoxicity was performed on all retrieved studies through a comprehensive research of network database. Data were analyzed by Review Manager 5.2 with heterogeneity assessed using the Cochrane Q and I 2 tests. CNI nephrotoxicity was primarily indicated with protocol biopsy or index-based clinical diagnosis, and the secondary outcome was defined as delayed graft function.

          Results

          Twelve observational studies containing a total of 2,849 cases were identified. Donor age (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03; p=0.02), recipient zero-time arteriosclerosis (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04–1.99; p=0.03), and CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 2.63–2.98; p=0.00) were confirmed as risk factors for CNI nephrotoxicity. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis claimed donor age as a significant contributor in Asian and Caucasian areas.

          Conclusion

          Older donor age, recipient zero-time arteriosclerosis, and CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype might add up the risk for CNI nephrotoxicity, which could be interpreted into a robust biomarker system.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Discovery and validation of cell cycle arrest biomarkers in human acute kidney injury

          Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) can evolve quickly and clinical measures of function often fail to detect AKI at a time when interventions are likely to provide benefit. Identifying early markers of kidney damage has been difficult due to the complex nature of human AKI, in which multiple etiologies exist. The objective of this study was to identify and validate novel biomarkers of AKI. Methods We performed two multicenter observational studies in critically ill patients at risk for AKI - discovery and validation. The top two markers from discovery were validated in a second study (Sapphire) and compared to a number of previously described biomarkers. In the discovery phase, we enrolled 522 adults in three distinct cohorts including patients with sepsis, shock, major surgery, and trauma and examined over 300 markers. In the Sapphire validation study, we enrolled 744 adult subjects with critical illness and without evidence of AKI at enrollment; the final analysis cohort was a heterogeneous sample of 728 critically ill patients. The primary endpoint was moderate to severe AKI (KDIGO stage 2 to 3) within 12 hours of sample collection. Results Moderate to severe AKI occurred in 14% of Sapphire subjects. The two top biomarkers from discovery were validated. Urine insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), both inducers of G1 cell cycle arrest, a key mechanism implicated in AKI, together demonstrated an AUC of 0.80 (0.76 and 0.79 alone). Urine [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] was significantly superior to all previously described markers of AKI (P 0.72. Furthermore, [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] significantly improved risk stratification when added to a nine-variable clinical model when analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model, generalized estimating equation, integrated discrimination improvement or net reclassification improvement. Finally, in sensitivity analyses [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] remained significant and superior to all other markers regardless of changes in reference creatinine method. Conclusions Two novel markers for AKI have been identified and validated in independent multicenter cohorts. Both markers are superior to existing markers, provide additional information over clinical variables and add mechanistic insight into AKI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01209169.
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            Glomerular number and size in relation to age, kidney weight, and body surface in normal man.

            The number and size of glomeruli in normal, mature human kidneys were estimated by a direct and unbiased stereological method, the fractionator. The number was 617,000 on average, and the mean size 6.0 M microns3. Both glomerular number and size showed significant negative correlation to age and significant positive correlation to kidney weight. Apparently, humans loose glomeruli with age. Body surface area correlated positively to kidney weight and total glomerular volume but not to number of glomeruli. Body surface area correlates significantly with metabolic rate (Robertson and Reid, Lancet, 1: 940-943, 1952). Thus, intraspecies adaptation of kidney filtration capacity to the metabolic demand is performed by changing the size of glomeruli, i.e., the number of glomeruli in individuals of a given species is independent of the metabolic rate.
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              Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP3A5 Genotype and Tacrolimus Dosing.

              Tacrolimus is the mainstay immunosuppressant drug used after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Individuals who express CYP3A5 (extensive and intermediate metabolizers) generally have decreased dose-adjusted trough concentrations of tacrolimus as compared with those who are CYP3A5 nonexpressers (poor metabolizers), possibly delaying achievement of target blood concentrations. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting this association and provide dosing recommendations for tacrolimus based on CYP3A5 genotype when known (updates at www.pharmgkb.org).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                28 February 2018
                : 12
                : 417-428
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacy, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wansheng Chen; Feng Zhang, Department of Pharmacy, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Fengyang Road No 415, Shanghai 200003, People’s Republic of China, Email chenwansheng@ 123456smmu.edu.cn ; zhangfeng@ 123456smmu.edu.cn
                Article
                dddt-12-417
                10.2147/DDDT.S149340
                5836651
                © 2018 Xia et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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