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      Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in spike 1 domain and membrane protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus

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          Highlights

          • FIPV, belongs to Alphacoronavirus, causes a fatal disease in wild and domestic cats.

          • Th1 activity plays an important role in protect against FIPV infection.

          • We identified the Th1 and antibody-binding epitopes in S1 domain and M protein of FIPV.

          • We selected 3 peptides that strongly induced Th1 activity from FIPV structural proteins.

          • 3 peptides were administered with CpG-ODNs to SPF cats, 2 peptides induced Th1 activity.

          Abstract

          Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV) causes a fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. The development of an FIP-preventive vaccine requires an antigen that does not induce antibody-dependent enhancement, and T helper (Th)1 activity plays an important role in protect against FIPV infection. In the present study, we identified synthetic peptides including Th1 and a linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope in the S1 domain and M protein of FIPV. We also identified peptides that strongly induce Th1 activity from those derived from the structural proteins (S, M, and N proteins) of FIPV based on this and previous studies (Satoh et al. [19]). No Th1 epitope-containing peptide was identified in the peptides derived from the S1 domain of type I FIPV. In contrast, 7 Th1 epitope-containing peptides were identified in the S1 domain of type II FIPV, and no linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope was contained in any of these peptides. Eleven Th1 epitope-containing peptides common to each serotype were identified in the M protein-derived peptides, and 2 peptides (M-11 and M-12) contained the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope. Of the peptides derived from the S, M, and N proteins of FIPV, those that induced significantly stronger Th1 activity than that of the FIPV antigen were rescreened, and 4 peptides were identified. When 3 of these peptides (M-9, I-S2-15, and II-S1-24) were selected and administered with CpG-ODNs to SPF cats, M-9 and II-S1-24 induced Th1 activity. Our results may provide important information for the development of a peptide-based vaccine against FIPV infection.

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          Most cited references23

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          Rapid and strong human CD8+ T cell responses to vaccination with peptide, IFA, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 7909.

          The induction of potent CD8+ T cell responses by vaccines to fight microbes or tumors remains a major challenge, as many candidates for human vaccines have proved to be poorly immunogenic. Deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosin oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) trigger Toll-like receptor 9, resulting in dendritic cell maturation that can enhance immunogenicity of peptide-based vaccines in mice. We tested whether a synthetic ODN, CpG 7909, could improve human tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Eight HLA-A2+ melanoma patients received 4 monthly vaccinations of low-dose CpG 7909 mixed with melanoma antigen A (Melan-A; identical to MART-1) analog peptide and incomplete Freund's adjuvant. All patients exhibited rapid and strong antigen-specific T cell responses: the frequency of Melan-A-specific T cells reached over 3% of circulating CD8+ T cells. This was one order of magnitude higher than the frequency seen in 8 control patients treated similarly but without CpG and 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than that seen in previous studies with synthetic vaccines. The enhanced T cell populations consisted primarily of effector memory cells, which in part secreted IFN- and expressed granzyme B and perforin ex vivo. In vitro, T cell clones recognized and killed melanoma cells in an antigen-specific manner. Thus, CpG 7909 is an efficient vaccine adjuvant that promotes strong antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in humans.
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            Long-lived memory T lymphocyte responses against SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in SARS-recovered patients

            The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a structural component of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and can induce antibody responses in SARS patients during infection. However, it is not known whether SARS-CoV N protein can induce a long persistence of memory T-cell response in human. In this study, we found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from fully recovered SARS individuals rapidly produced IFN-γ and IL-2 following stimulation with a pool of overlapping peptides that cover the entire N protein sequence. The N-specific IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells were mainly composed of CD45RA−CCR7+CD62L− cells, whereas IFN-γ+CD8+ memory T cells were mostly contained within CD45RA+CCR7−CD62L− cell population. Epitope mapping study indicated that a cluster of overlapping peptides located in the C-terminal region (amino acids [aa] 331 to 362) of N protein contained at least two different T-cell epitopes. The results indicated that human memory T-cell responses specific for SARS-CoV N protein could persist for 2 years in the absence of antigen, which would be a valuable for the design of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV and for basic studies of human T-cell memory.
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              Long-lived effector/central memory T-cell responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S antigen in recovered SARS patients

              The role of cell-mediated immunity in human SARS-CoV infection is still not well understood. In this study, we found that memory T-cell responses against the spike (S) protein were persistent for more than 1 year after SARS-CoV infection by detecting the production of IFN-γ using ELISA and ELISpot assays. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were involved in cellular responses against SARS-CoV infection. Interestingly, most of SARS-CoV S-specific memory CD4+ T cells were central memory cells expressing CD45RO+ CCR7+ CD62L−. However, the majority of memory CD8+ T cells revealed effector memory phenotype expressing CD45RO− CCR7− CD62L−. Thus, our study provides the evidence that SARS-CoV infection in humans can induce cellular immune response that is persistent for a long period of time. These data may have an important implication in the possibility of designing effective vaccine against SARS-CoV infection, specifically in defining T-cell populations that are implicated in protective immunity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Vaccine
                Vaccine
                Vaccine
                Elsevier Ltd.
                0264-410X
                1873-2518
                11 February 2014
                1 April 2014
                11 February 2014
                : 32
                : 16
                : 1834-1840
                Affiliations
                [0005]Laboratory of Veterinary Infectious Disease, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 176 23 4371; fax: +81 176 23 8703. hohdatsu@ 123456vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp
                Article
                S0264-410X(14)00137-6
                10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.01.074
                7115422
                24530149
                5b5e83ce-bc0d-4b1f-8162-e4d9e52e6632
                Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 11 November 2013
                : 21 January 2014
                : 28 January 2014
                Categories
                Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                coronavirus,feline infectious peritonitis,th1,peptide-based vaccine

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