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      Management of Post-transplant Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Disease

      , 1 , 3 , 1 , 2

      Drugs

      Springer International Publishing

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          Abstract

          Significant advances in immunosuppressive therapies have been made in renal transplantation, leading to increased allograft and patient survival. Despite improvement in overall patient survival, patients continue to require management of persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism. Medications that treat persistent hyperparathyroidism include vitamin D, vitamin D analogues, and calcimimetics. Medication side effects such as hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia, and adynamic bone disease, may lead to a decrease in the drugs. When medical management fails to control persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism, treatment is a parathyroidectomy. Surgical techniques are not uniform between centers and surgeons. Undergoing the surgery may include a subtotal technique or a technique including total parathyroid gland resection with partial heterotopic gland reimplantation. In addition, there are possible post-surgical complications. The ideal treatment for persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is the treatment and prevention of the condition while patients are being managed for their late-stage chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

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          Most cited references 89

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          Fibroblast growth factor 23 is elevated before parathyroid hormone and phosphate in chronic kidney disease.

          Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphorus metabolism and is a strong predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. FGF23 is thought to be an early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in the initial stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We measured FGF23 in baseline samples from 3879 patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, which is a diverse cohort of patients with CKD stage 2-4. Mean serum phosphate and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were in the normal range, but median FGF23 was markedly greater than in healthy populations, and increased significantly with decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). High levels of FGF23, defined as being above 100 RU/ml, were more common than secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia in all strata of eGFR. The threshold of eGFR at which the slope of FGF23 increased was significantly higher than the corresponding threshold for PTH based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Thus, increased FGF23 is a common manifestation of CKD that develops earlier than increased phosphate or PTH. Hence, FGF23 measurements may be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in patients with CKD and normal serum phosphate levels.
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            Cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving hemodialysis.

            Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with vitamin D and calcium in patients receiving dialysis is often complicated by hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease and adverse clinical outcomes. Calcimimetics target the calcium-sensing receptor and lower parathyroid hormone levels without increasing calcium and phosphorus levels. We report the results of two identical randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet hydrochloride. Patients who were receiving hemodialysis and who had inadequately controlled secondary hyperparathyroidism despite standard treatment were randomly assigned to receive cinacalcet (371 patients) or placebo (370 patients) for 26 weeks. Once-daily doses were increased from 30 mg to 180 mg to achieve intact parathyroid hormone levels of 250 pg per milliliter or less. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with values in this range during a 14-week efficacy-assessment phase. Forty-three percent of the cinacalcet group reached the primary end point, as compared with 5 percent of the placebo group (P<0.001). Overall, mean parathyroid hormone values decreased 43 percent in those receiving cinacalcet but increased 9 percent in the placebo group (P<0.001). The serum calcium-phosphorus product declined by 15 percent in the cinacalcet group and remained unchanged in the placebo group (P<0.001). Cinacalcet effectively reduced parathyroid hormone levels independently of disease severity or changes in vitamin D sterol dose. Cinacalcet lowers parathyroid hormone levels and improves calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in patients receiving hemodialysis who have uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Selective vitamin D receptor activation with paricalcitol for reduction of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes (VITAL study): a randomised controlled trial.

              Despite treatment with renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, patients with diabetes have increased risk of progressive renal failure that correlates with albuminuria. We aimed to assess whether paricalcitol could be used to reduce albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. In this multinational, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria who were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Patients were assigned (1:1:1) by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive 24 weeks’ treatment with placebo,1 μg/day paricalcitol, or 2 μg/day paricalcitol. The primary endpoint was the percentage change in geometric mean urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) from baseline to last measurement during treatment for the combined paricalcitol groups versus the placebo group. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00421733. Between February, 2007, and October, 2008, 281 patients were enrolled and assigned to receive placebo(n=93), 1 μg paricalcitol (n=93), or 2 μg paricalcitol (n=95); 88 patients on placebo, 92 on 1 μg paricalcitol, and 92 on2 μg paricalcitol received at least one dose of study drug, and had UACR data at baseline and at least one timepoint during treatment, and so were included in the primary analysis. Change in UACR was: –3% (from 61 to 60 mg/mmol;95% CI –16 to 13) in the placebo group; –16% (from 62 to 51 mg/mmol; –24 to –9) in the combined paricalcitol groups, with a between-group difference versus placebo of –15% (95% CI –28 to 1; p=0.071); –14% (from 63 to 54 mg/mmol; –24 to –1) in the 1 μg paricalcitol group, with a between-group difference versus placebo of –11%(95% CI –27 to 8; p=0.23); and –20% (from 61 to 49 mg/mmol; –30 to –8) in the 2 μg paricalcitol group, with a between-group difference versus placebo of –18% (95% CI –32 to 0; p=0.053). Patients on 2 μg paricalcitol showed a nearly, sustained reduction in UACR, ranging from –18% to –28% (p=0.014 vs placebo). Incidence of hypercalcaemia,adverse events, and serious adverse events was similar between groups receiving paricalcitol versus placebo. Addition of 2 μg/day paricalcitol to RAAS inhibition safely lowers residual albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy, and could be a novel approach to lower residual renal risk in diabetes. Abbott.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                delossantos@wustl.edu
                Journal
                Drugs
                Drugs
                Drugs
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                0012-6667
                1179-1950
                27 February 2019
                27 February 2019
                2019
                : 79
                : 5
                : 501-513
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Division of Nephrology, , Washington University in St. Louis, ; 660 S. Euclid Ave, Campus Box 8126, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 6853, GRID grid.42505.36, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, , Keck School of Medicine of USC, ; 2020 Zonal Ave, IRD 806, Los Angeles, CA 90033 USA
                [3 ]Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Maine Medical Center, Maine Transplant Program, 19 West St., Portland, ME 04102 USA
                Article
                1074
                10.1007/s40265-019-01074-4
                6439149
                30811012
                © The Author(s) 2019

                OpenAccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Categories
                Therapy in Practice
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

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