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      HIV infection and coronary heart disease: mechanisms and management

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      Nature Reviews Cardiology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Antiretroviral therapy has largely transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease condition. As such, physicians and other providers caring for individuals living with HIV infection need to be aware of the potential cardiovascular complications of HIV infection and the nuances of how HIV infection increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including acute myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral artery disease, heart failure and sudden cardiac death, as well as how to select available therapies to reduce this risk. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology and clinical features of cardiovascular disease, with a focus on coronary heart disease, in the setting of HIV infection, which includes a substantially increased risk of myocardial infarction even when the HIV infection is well controlled. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying HIV-associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, such as the high rates of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with HIV infection and HIV-related factors, including the use of antiretroviral therapy and chronic inflammation in the setting of effectively treated HIV infection. Finally, we highlight available therapeutic strategies, as well as approaches under investigation, to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and lower inflammation in patients with HIV infection.

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          Most cited references 139

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          Inflammation, Coagulation and Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Infected Individuals

          Background The SMART study was a trial of intermittent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous use of ART (viral suppression [VS]) as a strategy to reduce toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied the predictive value of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer with CVD morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in SMART beyond other measured CVD risk factors. Methods A blood sample was available in 5098 participants who were enrolled in the SMART study for the measurement of IL-6, hsCRP and D-dimer. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI for CVD events were estimated for each quartile (Q) for each biomarker vs the 1st quartile and for 1 SD higher levels. For both treatment groups combined, unadjusted and adjusted HRs were determined using Cox regression models. Results There were 252 participants who had a CVD event over a median follow-up of 29 months. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) for CVD for Q4 vs Q1 were 4.65 (2.61, 8.29), 2.10 (1.40, 3.16), and 2.14 (1.38, 3.33) for IL-6, hsCRP and D-dimer, respectively. Associations were similar for the DC and VS treatment groups (interaction p-values were >0.30). The addition of the three biomarkers to a model that included baseline covariates significantly improved model fit (p<0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) estimates improved with inclusion of the three biomarkers in a model that included baseline covariates corresponding to other CVD risk factors and HIV factors (0.741 to 0.771; p<0.001 for difference). Conclusions In HIV-infected individuals, IL-6, hsCRP and D-dimer are associated with an increased risk of CVD independent of other CVD risk factors. Further research is needed to determine whether these biomarkers can be used to improve CVD risk prediction among HIV positive individuals.
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            Once-daily dolutegravir versus raltegravir in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection: 48 week results from the randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority SPRING-2 study.

            Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) is a once-daily HIV integrase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity and a favourable safety profile. We compared dolutegravir with HIV integrase inhibitor raltegravir, as initial treatment for adults with HIV-1. SPRING-2 is a 96 week, phase 3, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study that began on Oct 19, 2010, at 100 sites in Canada, USA, Australia, and Europe. Treatment-naive adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 RNA concentrations of 1000 copies per mL or greater were randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive either dolutegravir (50 mg once daily) or raltegravir (400 mg twice daily). Study drugs were given with coformulated tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine. Randomisation was stratified by screening HIV-1 RNA (≤ 100,000 copies per mL or >100,000 copies per mL) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. Investigators were not masked to HIV-1 RNA results before randomisation. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL at 48 weeks, with a 10% non-inferiority margin. Main secondary endpoints were changes from baseline in CD4 cell counts, incidence and severity of adverse events, changes in laboratory parameters, and genotypic or phenotypic evidence of resistance. Our primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01227824. 411 patients were randomly allocated to receive dolutegravir and 411 to receive raltegravir and received at least one dose of study drug. At 48 weeks, 361 (88%) patients in the dolutegravir group achieved an HIV-1 RNA value of less than 50 copies per mL compared with 351 (85%) in the raltegravir group (adjusted difference 2·5%; 95% CI -2·2 to 7·1). Adverse events were similar between treatment groups. The most common events were nausea (59 [14%] patients in the dolutegravir group vs 53 [13%] in the raltegravir group), headache (51 [12%] vs 48 [12%]), nasopharyngitis (46 [11%] vs 48 [12%]), and diarrhoea (47 [11%] in each group). Few patients had drug-related serious adverse events (three [<1%] vs five [1%]), and few had adverse events leading to discontinuation (ten [2%] vs seven [2%] in each group). CD4 cell counts increased from baseline to week 48 in both treatment groups by a median of 230 cells per μL. Rates of graded laboratory toxic effects were similar. We noted no evidence of treatment-emergent resistance in patients with virological failure on dolutegravir, whereas of the patients with virologic failure who received raltegravir, one (6%) had integrase treatment-emergent resistance and four (21%) had nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors treatment-emergent resistance. The non-inferior efficacy and similar safety profile of dolutegravir compared with raltegravir means that if approved, combination treatment with once-daily dolutegravir and fixed-dose nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors would be an effective new option for treatment of HIV-1 in treatment-naive patients. ViiV Healthcare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Impact of HIV infection and HAART on serum lipids in men.

              Alterations in serum lipid values have been widely reported among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but no data have yet been reported on changes from preseroconversion lipid values. To describe changes in serum cholesterol levels associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral medication exposure, and 1-time assessment of triglyceride levels post-HAART initiation. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a prospective study in which homosexual and bisexual men were enrolled and from which 50 of 517 HIV seroconverters were drawn for the analysis herein, who later initiated HAART, involving measurements of stored serum samples obtained between 1984 and 2002. Changes in levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at 6 time points during an average of 12 years; 1-time assessment of triglyceride levels from the third post-HAART clinic visit. Among the 50 men, notable declines in mean serum TC (-30 mg/dL [-0.78 mmol/L]), HDL-C (-12 mg/dL [-0.31 mmol/L]), and LDL-C values (-22 mg/dL [-0.57 mmol/L]) were observed after HIV infection. Following HAART initiation, there were large increases in mean TC and LDL-C values (50 and 21 mg/dL [1.30 and 0.54 mmol/L], respectively); however, the mean changes from the preseroconversion values were 20 mg/dL (0.52 mmol/L) (95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 41) and -1 mg/dL (-0.03 mmol/L) (95% CI, -25 to 22), respectively. Mean HDL-C remained below baseline levels throughout follow-up. The median value (interquartile range) of triglycerides was 225 mg/dL (2.54 mmol/L) (147-331 mg/dL). Before treatment, HIV infection results in substantial decreases in serum TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C levels. Subsequent HAART initiation is associated with increases in TC and LDL-C but little change in HDL-C. Increases in TC and LDL-C observed after about 3 years of HAART possibly represent a return to preinfection serum lipid levels after accounting for expected age-related changes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cardiology
                Nat Rev Cardiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5002
                1759-5010
                June 10 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41569-019-0219-9
                8015945
                31182833
                © 2019

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