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      Letter to the Editor Re: Nissensohn M. et al.; Nutrients 2016, 8, 232

      1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , *

      Nutrients

      MDPI

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          Abstract

          Dear Editor, We read with interest the recently published original article entitled “Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study” by Nissensohn et al. [1] in Nutrients. We agree with the authors that there is a clear need for more information about total fluid and different types of beverages intake and further epidemiological studies using this information should be performed. However, we note in the Introduction the following sentences: “Furthermore, total water intake (TWI) data of Spain are scarce. There are no recent epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverages intake. […], we are unaware of other research investigating beverage intake among the Spanish population.” We would like to point out that, in 2014, our group in collaboration with other authors published a cross-sectional description of the fluid intake habits of the Spanish population including 1262 adults [2] and 238 children and adolescents aged 3–17 years [3]. These articles described exclusively the beverage consumption of the Spanish population and analyzed it according sex, age ranges and time of day. We also compared our results on fluid and beverage consumption with EFSA water adequate intakes and WHO free sugar recommendations [4,5]. We subsequently related this fluid intake data to Mediterranean diet adherence and physical exercise practice [6]. We observed that adult individuals presenting a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet and those practicing more physical exercise also presented a healthy beverages consumption pattern, showing moderate consumption of wine and milk and derivatives, high consumption of water and lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Finally, in 2015, we compared the Spanish fluid and beverage intake with 12 other countries worldwide using the same methodological approach [7,8]. In these two publications, we compared the fluid consumption with the EFSA total fluid intake and WHO free-sugar recommendations, in order to assess the percentage of population not complying with these recommended values. The conclusions of Nissensohn et al. are very similar of those of our research group: a high proportion of the population in Spain are not complying with the EFSA adequate intake values.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Guideline: Sugars Intake for Adults and Children

          (2015)
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            Intake of water and different beverages in adults across 13 countries

            Purpose To describe the intake of water and all other fluids and to evaluate the proportion of adults exceeding the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations on energy intake from free sugar, solely from fluids. Methods A total of 16,276 adults (46 % men, mean age 39.8 years) were recruited in 13 countries from 3 continents. A 24-h fluid-specific record over 7 days was used for fluid assessment. Results In Spain, France, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia and China, fluid intake was characterised by a high contribution of water (47–78 %) to total fluid intake (TFI), with a mean water intake between 0.76 and 1.78 L/day, and a mean energy intake from fluids from 182 to 428 kcal/day. Between 11 and 49 % of adults exceeded the free sugar WHO recommendations, considering solely fluids. In Germany, UK, Poland and Japan, the largest contributors to TFI were hot beverages (28–50 %) and water (18–32 %). Mean energy intake from fluids ranged from 415 to 817 kcal/day, and 48–62 % of adults exceeded free sugar WHO recommendations. In Mexico, Brazil and Argentina, the contribution of juices and regular sugar beverages (28–41 %) was as important as the water contribution to TFI (17–39 %). Mean energy intake from fluids ranged 565–694 kcal/day, and 60–66 % of the adults exceeded the free sugar WHO recommendation. Conclusions The highest volumes recorded in most of the countries were for water, mean energy intake from fluids was up to 694 kcal/day, and 66 % of adults exceeded the free sugar WHO recommendation solely by fluids. Actions to create an environment in favour of water consumption and reduce sugar intake from fluids therefore are warranted. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00394-015-0952-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

              Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                27 July 2016
                August 2016
                : 8
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Human Nutrition Unit, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, IISPV (Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili), Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus. C/Sant Llorenç, 21, Reus 43201, Spain; cintia.ferreira@ 123456iispv.cat (C.F.-P.); nancy.babio@ 123456urv.cat (N.B.)
                [2 ]CIBEROBN (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5, Pabellón 11, Planta 0, Madrid 28029, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jordi.salas@ 123456urv.cat ; Tel.: +34-977-759-312; Fax: +34-977-759-322
                Article
                nutrients-08-00453
                10.3390/nu8080453
                4997368
                27472360
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Letter

                Nutrition & Dietetics

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