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      AMPK regulates lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells through FTO-dependent demethylation of N 6 -methyladenosine

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          Abstract

          Skeletal muscle plays important roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Excessive skeletal muscle lipid accumulation is associated with some metabolic diseases such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. The energy sensor AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, but the precise regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide a novel mechanism by which AMPK regulates skeletal muscle lipid accumulation through fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO)-dependent demethylation of N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6A). We confirmed an inverse correlation between AMPK and skeletal muscle lipid content. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK enhanced lipid accumulation, while activation of AMPK reduced lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells. Notably, we found that mRNA m 6A methylation levels were inversely correlated with lipid content in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, AMPK positively regulated the m 6A methylation levels of mRNA, which could negatively regulate lipid accumulation in C2C12. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that AMPK regulated lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells by regulating FTO expression and FTO-dependent demethylation of m 6A. Together, these results provide a novel regulatory mechanism of AMPK on lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle cells and suggest the possibility of controlling skeletal muscle lipid deposition by targeting AMPK or using m 6A related drugs.

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          Most cited references36

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          The obesity-associated FTO gene encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid demethylase.

          Variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with increased body mass index in humans. Here, we show by bioinformatics analysis that FTO shares sequence motifs with Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases. We find that recombinant murine Fto catalyzes the Fe(II)- and 2OG-dependent demethylation of 3-methylthymine in single-stranded DNA, with concomitant production of succinate, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. Consistent with a potential role in nucleic acid demethylation, Fto localizes to the nucleus in transfected cells. Studies of wild-type mice indicate that Fto messenger RNA (mRNA) is most abundant in the brain, particularly in hypothalamic nuclei governing energy balance, and that Fto mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus are regulated by feeding and fasting. Studies can now be directed toward determining the physiologically relevant FTO substrate and how nucleic acid methylation status is linked to increased fat mass.
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            Inactivation of the Fto gene protects from obesity.

            Several independent, genome-wide association studies have identified a strong correlation between body mass index and polymorphisms in the human FTO gene. Common variants in the first intron define a risk allele predisposing to obesity, with homozygotes for the risk allele weighing approximately 3 kilograms more than homozygotes for the low risk allele. Nevertheless, the functional role of FTO in energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we show that the loss of Fto in mice leads to postnatal growth retardation and a significant reduction in adipose tissue and lean body mass. The leanness of Fto-deficient mice develops as a consequence of increased energy expenditure and systemic sympathetic activation, despite decreased spontaneous locomotor activity and relative hyperphagia. Taken together, these experiments provide, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration that Fto is functionally involved in energy homeostasis by the control of energy expenditure.
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              Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

              This article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Discussion begins by describing normal glucose homeostasis and ingestion of a typical meal and then discusses glucose homeostasis in diabetes. Topics covered include insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, the site of insulin resistance, the interaction between insulin sensitivity and secretion, the role of adipocytes in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance including glucose transport and phosphorylation, glycogen and synthesis,glucose and oxidation, glycolysis, and insulin signaling.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                08 February 2017
                2017
                : 7
                : 41606
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition & Feed Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture; Zhejiang Provincial Laboratory of Feed and Animal Nutrition , No. 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, P. R. China
                [2 ]Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Science , Changsha, Hunan 410125, P. R. China
                Author notes
                Article
                srep41606
                10.1038/srep41606
                5296945
                28176824
                5dd6be65-d24c-4623-a176-0288ef0cef53
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 01 July 2016
                : 22 December 2016
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