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Epidemiology of community pre-hypertensive patients and related risk factors in Chengdu city

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      Objective: This study aims to explore the epidemiologic characteristics of pre-hypertension, its related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and its relativity with metabolic disorders among community residents of Chengdu city.Methods: Cluster random sampling was performed in three districts and counties of Chengdu. A total of 3524 residents (resident for ≥1 year, ≥18 years of age) were enrolled in the investigation. All the participants were interviewed in the questionnaire survey. Physical examination, blood pressure measurements, and blood sampling were also performed.Results: The overall prevalence of pre-hypertension was 34.07%. The prevalence of prehypertension was higher in males than in females (41.16% vs. 23.89%, P<0.05). The prevalence of prehypertension among patients with systolic/diastolic blood pressures of 120–129 mmHg/80–84 mmHg and 130–139 mmHg/85–89 mmHg were 34.90% and 17.16%, respectively. The prevalence of prehypertension increased with age, reaching a peak at 30–39 years (39.93%), and then declined. Multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease were more common in patients with hypertension and prehypertension than in the population with normal blood pressure. Pre-hypertension was associated with increased fasting blood glucose and increased relative risks of hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, compared with patients who had normal blood pressure.Conclusion: The prevalence of pre-hypertension in residents of Chengdu was high. Multiple metabolic disorders were already present in the population, and multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors were more common than in the population with normal blood pressure. Early screening for cardiovascular risk factors should be performed in patients with pre-hypertension. In addition, comprehensive measures, such as lifestyle improvement and medications, should be implemented.

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      The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among US adults according to the new joint national committee guidelines: new challenges of the old problem.

       Youfa Wang,  Q. Wang (2004)
      The recently released Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee (JNC) on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure provides a new classification of blood pressure levels. Little is known about the current situation of elevated blood pressure in the United States, according to the new guidelines. Cross-sectional analysis of national representative data collected from 4805 adults 18 years and older surveyed in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension according to the new JNC guidelines, people's awareness and management of hypertension, and the differences across sociodemographic and body weight groups. Elevated blood pressure is a serious problem in the United States. Approximately 60% of American adults have prehypertension or hypertension, and some population groups, such as African Americans, older people, low-socioeconomic-status groups, and overweight groups, are disproportionately affected. The prevalence of hypertension has increased by approximately 10 percentage points during the past decade. The awareness and appropriate management of hypertension among hypertensive patients remain low: 31% were not aware of their disease, only two thirds (66%) were told by health professionals to adopt lifestyle modifications or take drugs to control hypertension, and only 31% controlled their hypertension. With 60% of the population affected, the United States is facing a serious challenge in the prevention and management of prehypertension and hypertension. People's awareness and control of hypertension remain poor. This study highlights the seriousness of the problem and the importance of promoting lifestyle modifications.
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        Prehypertension and the cardiometabolic syndrome: pathological and clinical consequences.

        Prehypertension is the category of blood pressure (BP) defined as systolic BP between 120 and 139 mmHg and diastolic BP between 85 and 89 mmHg. Prehypertension is a continuum to hypertension and is emerging as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The definition of the cardiometabolic syndrome is a cluster of several risk factors such as abdominal obesity, prehypertension or hypertension, dyslipidemia and prediabetes. Prevention by lifestyle intervention and also treatment of individual components is recommended, given that most subjects with metabolic syndrome fall into the high-risk category. There are several studies with dietary approaches, which showed that these approaches helped in stopping the progression of hypertension and also improved the metabolic conditions. Several large trials are under way to study several antihypertensive drugs to delay the development of hypertension. Identifying early cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic individuals provides a better guide to the need for individualized preventive therapy than traditional risk factor assessment.
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          Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in a Korean population: Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2001

           KM Choi,  HS Park,  JH Han (2006)

            Author and article information

            1Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Related Diseases, First People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, China, 610041
            2Shiyang Community Health Center, Chengdu, China, 610000
            3Dong Sheng Community Health Center, Chengdu, China, 610041
            4Qinglong Community Health Center, Chengdu, China, 610000
            Author notes
            CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Xinyun Chen, Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Related Diseases, First People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, China, 610041, E-mail: cissy1002@
            Family Medicine and Community Health
            Family Medicine and Community Health & American Chinese Medical Education Association (USA )
            September 2013
            September 2014
            : 1
            : 3
            : 27-32
            Copyright © 2013 Family Medicine and Community Health

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See

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