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      Advantages of the Combination of Conscious Sedation Epidural Anesthesia Under Fluoroscopy Guidance in Lumbar Spine Surgery

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          With the increase in life expectancy seen throughout the world, the prevalence of degenerative spinal pathology and surgery to treat it has increased. Spinal surgery under general anesthesia leads to various problems and complications, especially in patients with numerous medical comorbidities or elderly patients. For this reason, there is a need for safer anesthetic methods applicable to unhealthy, elderly patients undergoing spinal surgery.


          To report our experience with utilizing fluoroscopy-guided epidural anesthesia in conjunction with conscious sedation in spinal surgery.

          Patients and Methods

          We performed a retrospective review of 111 patients at our institution that received fluoroscopy-guided epidural anesthesia for lumbar surgery from February to September 2018. Patients’ records were evaluated to evaluate patient demographics, American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Classification System (ASA) class, and pain numerical rating scores (NRS) preoperatively and throughout their recovery postoperatively. Intraoperative data including volume of epidural anesthetic used, extent of epidural spread, and inadvertent subdural injection was collected. Postoperative recovery time was also collected.


          The mean age of our patients was 60 years old with a range between 31 and 83 years old. All patients experienced decreases in postoperative pain with no significant differences based on age or ASA class. There was no association between ASA class and time to recovery postoperatively. Older patients (age 70 years or greater) had a significantly longer recovery time when compared to younger patients. Recovery also was longer for patients who received higher volumes of epidural anesthesia. For every 1 mL increase of epidural anesthetic given, there was an increase in the extent of spread of 1.8 spinal levels.


          We demonstrate the safety and feasibility of utilizing conscious sedation in conjunction with fluoroscopy-guided epidural anesthesia in the lumbar spinal surgery.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Complications and consequences of endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy

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            A prospective randomized study comparing short- and intermediate-term perioperative outcome variables after spinal or general anesthesia for lumbar disk and laminectomy surgery.

            General or regional anesthesia may be used for lumbar laminectomy. To determine whether one method is superior, 122 patients were randomly assigned to receive either a standard general anesthetic (GA) or spinal anesthesia (SA) supplemented with intravenous (IV) propofol sedation. Data from the intraoperative period through hospital discharge were collected and compared. Demographically, both groups were similar. Total anesthesia (131.0 +/- 4.3 vs 106.6 +/- 3.2 min) and surgical times (81.5 +/- 3.6 vs 67.1 +/- 2.8 min) were longer in the GA group. Intraoperative hemodynamics were similar between groups except that the incidence of increased blood pressure was more frequent with GA (26.2% vs 3.3%). Blood loss was less during SA (133 +/- 18 mL vs 221 +/- 32 mL). Postanesthesia care unit (PACU) heart rates and mean arterial pressures were higher in the GA group. Peak pain scores in the PACU were higher after GA compared with SA (58 +/- 4 vs 22 +/- 3) as were the number of patients who required analgesics. Severe nausea was more common in the GA group both in the PACU and during the 24 h after surgery. Analgesic requirements after discharge from the PACU, urinary retention, and days in the hospital did not differ between groups. This study suggests that SA may be superior to GA both intraoperatively and postoperatively for lumbar spine procedures lasting less than 2 h.
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              Regional anaesthesia versus general anaesthesia, morbidity and mortality.

              The regional versus general anaesthesia debate is an age-old debate that has brought about few clear answers. Most concur that multiple factors including the patient, the surgery, the method of regional and general anaesthesia, and the quality of perioperative care, all influence surgical outcome. In this age of evidence-based medicine, the heterogenous data available need to be reconciled with the advances in perioperative care and the significant decline in complications associated with the surgical process as a whole. This review considers general issues such as the type of available evidence, and its limitations, particularly with regard to the relatively broad question of neuraxial versus general anaesthesia. It then assesses current evidence on regional versus general anaesthesia for specific scenarios such as hip fracture surgery, carotid endarterectomy, Caesarean section, ambulatory orthopaedic surgery, and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after non-cardiac surgery.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                21 January 2020
                : 13
                : 211-219
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Nanoori Hospital Gangnam , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital Gangnam , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Department of Orthopedics, Ganga Ram Hospital , Delhi, India
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital Bupyeong , Incheon, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hyeun Sung Kim Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital Gangnam , #06048 731 Eonju Street, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul, Republic of KoreaTel +82 2 6003 9767Fax +82 2 3445 9755 Email neurospinekim@gmail.com
                © 2020 Kang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 4, References: 30, Pages: 9
                Original Research


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