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      Good enough processing: what have we learned in the 20 years since Ferreira et al. (2002)?


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          Traditionally, language processing has been thought of in terms of complete processing of the input. In contrast to this, Ferreira and colleagues put forth the idea of good enough processing. The proposal was that during everyday processing, ambiguities remain unresolved, we rely on heuristics instead of full analyses, and we carry out deep processing only if we need to for the task at hand. This idea has gathered substantial traction since its conception. In the current work, I review the papers that have tested the three key claims of good enough processing: ambiguities remain unresolved and underspecified, we use heuristics to parse sentences, and deep processing is only carried out if required by the task. I find mixed evidence for these claims and conclude with an appeal to further refinement of the claims and predictions of the theory.

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          Most cited references45

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          Thinking ahead: the role and roots of prediction in language comprehension.

          Reviewed are studies using event-related potentials to examine when and how sentence context information is used during language comprehension. Results suggest that, when it can, the brain uses context to predict features of likely upcoming items. However, although prediction seems important for comprehension, it also appears susceptible to age-related deterioration and can be associated with processing costs. The brain may address this trade-off by employing multiple processing strategies, distributed across the two cerebral hemispheres. In particular, left hemisphere language processing seems to be oriented toward prediction and the use of top-down cues, whereas right hemisphere comprehension is more bottom-up, biased toward the veridical maintenance of information. Such asymmetries may arise, in turn, because language comprehension mechanisms are integrated with language production mechanisms only in the left hemisphere (the PARLO framework).
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            Do people use language production to make predictions during comprehension?

            We present the case that language comprehension involves making simultaneous predictions at different linguistic levels and that these predictions are generated by the language production system. Recent research suggests that ease of comprehending predictable elements is due to prediction rather than facilitated integration, and that comprehension is accompanied by covert imitation. We argue that comprehenders use prediction and imitation to construct an "emulator", using the production system, and combine predictions with the input dynamically. Such a process helps to explain the rapidity of comprehension and the robust interpretation of ambiguous or noisy input. This framework is in line with a general trend in cognitive science to incorporate action systems into perceptual systems and has broad implications for understanding the links between language production and comprehension.
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              Making and correcting errors during sentence comprehension: Eye movements in the analysis of structurally ambiguous sentences


                Author and article information

                URI : https://loop.frontiersin.org/people/771607/overviewRole: Role: Role: Role: Role:
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                24 January 2024
                : 15
                : 1323700
                Psychology of Language Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics , Nijmegen, Netherlands
                Author notes

                Edited by: Snehlata Jaswal, Sikkim University, India

                Reviewed by: Vsevolod Kapatsinski, University of Oregon, United States

                Manuel Martin-Loeches, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

                *Correspondence: Candice Frances, candice.frances@ 123456mpi.nl
                Copyright © 2024 Frances.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 18 October 2023
                : 09 January 2024
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 45, Pages: 14, Words: 13412
                The author(s) declare that no financial support was received for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
                Custom metadata
                Cognitive Science

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                good enough processing,language processing,heuristics,depth of processing,ambiguity underspecification


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