Blog
About

78
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    4
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Stochastic, structural and functional factors influencing AMPA and NMDA synaptic response variability: a review

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Synaptic transmission is the basic mechanism of information transfer between neurons not only in the brain, but along all the nervous system. In this review we will briefly summarize some of the main parameters that produce stochastic variability in the synaptic response. This variability produces different effects on important brain phenomena, like learning and memory, and, alterations of its basic factors can cause brain malfunctioning.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 71

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Glutamate receptor ion channels: structure, regulation, and function.

          The mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor family encodes 18 gene products that coassemble to form ligand-gated ion channels containing an agonist recognition site, a transmembrane ion permeation pathway, and gating elements that couple agonist-induced conformational changes to the opening or closing of the permeation pore. Glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and are localized on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. These receptors regulate a broad spectrum of processes in the brain, spinal cord, retina, and peripheral nervous system. Glutamate receptors are postulated to play important roles in numerous neurological diseases and have attracted intense scrutiny. The description of glutamate receptor structure, including its transmembrane elements, reveals a complex assembly of multiple semiautonomous extracellular domains linked to a pore-forming element with striking resemblance to an inverted potassium channel. In this review we discuss International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology glutamate receptor nomenclature, structure, assembly, accessory subunits, interacting proteins, gene expression and translation, post-translational modifications, agonist and antagonist pharmacology, allosteric modulation, mechanisms of gating and permeation, roles in normal physiological function, as well as the potential therapeutic use of pharmacological agents acting at glutamate receptors.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Neuroligins and neurexins link synaptic function to cognitive disease.

            The brain processes information by transmitting signals at synapses, which connect neurons into vast networks of communicating cells. In these networks, synapses not only transmit signals but also transform and refine them. Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell-adhesion molecules that connect presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons at synapses, mediate signalling across the synapse, and shape the properties of neural networks by specifying synaptic functions. In humans, alterations in genes encoding neurexins or neuroligins have recently been implicated in autism and other cognitive diseases, linking synaptic cell adhesion to cognition and its disorders.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Heterogeneity of release probability, facilitation, and depletion at central synapses.

              Previous studies of short-term plasticity in central nervous systems synapses have largely focused on average synaptic properties. In this study, we use recordings from putative single synaptic release sites in hippocampal slices to show that significant heterogeneity exists in facilitation and depletion among synapses. In particular, the amount of paired-pulse facilitation is inversely related to the initial release probability of the synapse. We also examined depletion at individual synapses using high frequency stimulation, and estimated the size of the readily releasable vesicle pool, which averaged 5.0 +/- 3.0 quanta (n = 13 synapses). In addition, these experiments demonstrate that the release probability at a synapse is directly correlated with the size of its readily releasable vesicle pool.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Istituto di Scienze Applicate e Sistemi Intelligenti del CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Vito Di Maio ( vito.dimaio@ 123456cnr.it )
                Journal
                ppneurosig
                NS
                Neuronal Signal.
                Neuronal Signaling
                Neuronal Signal.
                Portland Press Ltd.
                2059-6553
                18 May 2017
                14 June 2017
                15 August 2017
                : 1
                : 3
                10.1042/NS20160051
                © 2017 The Author(s).

                This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).

                Counts
                Pages: 11
                Product
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.neuronalsignaling.org/
                Categories
                Review Articles
                Review Article
                1
                18
                10
                47

                Comments

                Comment on this article