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      Seroprevalence of Campylobacter-Specific Antibodies in two German Duck Farms – A Prospective Follow-Up Study

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          Abstract

          Several studies have shown that about 60–100% of farmed ducks are colonized by Campylobacter species. Because of this, a higher risk of campylobacteriosis among duck farm workers can be assumed.

          To estimate the risk of Campylobacter infections in duck farm workers, we investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in ducks of two duck farms and the seroprevalence of anti- Campylobacter antibodies (IgA and IgG) in two cohorts of workers. The first cohort consisted of high-exposed stable workers and slaughterers, which was compared to a second cohort of non-/low-exposed persons. Duck caecal swabs and serum samples were collected in 2004, 2007, and 2010.

          The colonization rate in the examined ducks was found to be 80–90%. The seroprevalence of anti- Campylobacter IgA and IgG antibodies among the non-exposed cohort was found to be 0.00% in all 3 years. In contrast, the exposed cohort demonstrated an IgA seroprevalence of 4.17% in 2004, 5.71% in 2007, and 0.00% in 2010 and an IgG seroprevalence of 8.33% in 2004, 0.00% in 2007, and 4.29% in 2010.

          In conclusion, in 2004, we observed a significantly higher anti- Campylobacter antibody seroprevalence in the exposed cohort followed by a steady reduction in 2007 and 2010 under occupational health and safety measures.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Campylobacter jejuni: a brief overview on pathogenicity-associated factors and disease-mediating mechanisms.

          Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a cause of bacterial food-borne illness, and surprisingly, it remains the most prevalent bacterial food-borne pathogen in the industrial world to date. Natural reservoirs for this Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium are wild birds, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of C. jejuni Chickens become colonized shortly after birth and are the most important source for human infection. In the last decade, effective intervention strategies to limit infections caused by this elusive pathogen were hindered mainly because of a paucity in understanding the virulence mechanisms of C. jejuni and in part, unavailability of an adequate animal model for the disease. However, recent developments in deciphering molecular mechanisms of virulence of C. jejuni made it clear that C. jejuni is a unique pathogen, being able to execute N-linked glycosylation of more than 30 proteins related to colonization, adherence, and invasion. Moreover, the flagellum is not only depicted to facilitate motility but as well secretion of Campylobacter invasive antigens (Cia). The only toxin of C. jejuni, the so-called cytolethal distending toxin (CdtA,B,C), seems to be important for cell cycle control and induction of host cell apoptosis and has been recognized as a major pathogenicity-associated factor. In contrast to other diarrhoea-causing bacteria, no other classical virulence factors have yet been identified in C. jejuni. Instead, host factors seem to play a major role for pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis of man. Indeed, several lines of evidence suggest exploitation of different adaptation strategies by this pathogen depending on its requirement, whether to establish itself in the natural avian reservoir or during the course of human infection. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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            Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen.

            Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain.
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              Modification of Intestinal Microbiota and Its Consequences for Innate Immune Response in the Pathogenesis of Campylobacteriosis

              Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis in the world, and thus one of the most important public health concerns. The initial stage in its pathogenesis after ingestion is to overcome colonization resistance that is maintained by the human intestinal microbiota. But how it overcomes colonization resistance is unknown. Recently developed humanized gnotobiotic mouse models have provided deeper insights into this initial stage and host's immune response. These studies have found that a fat-rich diet modifies the composition of the conventional intestinal microbiota by increasing the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria loads while reducing the Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes loads creating an imbalance that exposes the intestinal epithelial cells to adherence. Upon adherence, deoxycholic acid stimulates C. jejuni to synthesize Campylobacter invasion antigens, which invade the epithelial cells. In response, NF- κ B triggers the maturation of dendritic cells. Chemokines produced by the activated dendritic cells initiate the clearance of C. jejuni cells by inducing the actions of neutrophils, B-lymphocytes, and various subsets of T-cells. This immune response causes inflammation. This review focuses on the progress that has been made on understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota shift, establishment of C. jejuni infection, and consequent immune response.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                17 May 2016
                24 June 2016
                : 6
                : 2
                : 118-123
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie , Kreuzbergring 57, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany
                [2 ]Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Gruppe Biologische Arbeitsstoffe , Nöldnerstraße 40–42, D-10317 Berlin, Germany
                [3 ]Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Institut für Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin , Waldweg 37 B, D-37073 Göttingen, Germany
                Author notes
                * Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Kreuzbergring 57, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany; +49-551-398549; +49-551-395861; azautne@ 123456gwdg.de

                Conflict of interest

                The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2016.00007
                4936334
                27429794
                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 23, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Article

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