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      Solitary fibrous tumor: a clinicopathological study of 110 cases and proposed risk assessment model

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          Abstract

          Solitary fibrous tumor represents a spectrum of mesenchymal tumors, encompassing tumors previously termed hemangiopericytoma, which are classified as having intermediate biological potential (rarely metastasizing) in the 2002 World Health Organization classification scheme. Few series have reported on clinicopathological predictors with outcome data and formal statistical analysis in a large series of primary tumors as a single unified entity. Institutional pathology records were reviewed to identify primary solitary fibrous tumor cases, and histological sections and clinical records reviewed for canonical prognostic indicators, including patient age, tumor size, mitotic index, tumor cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and tumor necrosis. Patients (n=103) with resected primary solitary fibrous tumor were identified (excluding meningeal tumors). The most common sites of occurrence were abdomen and pleura; these tumors were larger than those occurring in the extremities, head and neck or trunk, but did not demonstrate significant outcome differences. Overall 5- and 10-year metastasis-free rates were 74 and 55%, respectively, while 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 89 and 73%. Patient age, tumor size, and mitotic index predicted both time to metastasis and disease-specific mortality, while necrosis predicted metastasis only. A risk stratification model based on age, size, and mitotic index clearly delineated patients at high risk for poor outcomes. While small tumors with low mitotic rates are highly unlikely to metastasize, large tumors ≥ 15 cm, which occur in patients ≥ 55 years, with mitotic figures ≥ 4/10 high-power fields require close follow-up and have a high risk of both metastasis and death.

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          Most cited references 23

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          NCCN Task Force report: update on the management of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

          The standard of care for managing patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) rapidly changed after the introduction of effective molecularly targeted therapies involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib mesylate and sunitinib malate. A better understanding of the molecular characteristics of GISTs have improved the diagnostic accuracy and led to the discovery of novel immunomarkers and new mechanisms of resistance to TKI therapy, which in turn have resulted in the development of novel treatment strategies. To address these issues, the NCCN organized a task force consisting of a multidisciplinary panel of experts in the fields of medical oncology, surgical oncology, molecular diagnostics, and pathology to discuss the recent advances, identify areas of future research, and recommend an optimal approach to care for patients with GIST at all stages of disease. The task force met for the first time in October 2003 and again in December 2006 and October 2009. This supplement describes the recent developments in the field of GIST as discussed at the October 2009 meeting.
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            Clinicopathologic correlates of solitary fibrous tumors.

            Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare fibrous neoplasms. Since their initial description as arising from the pleura, SFTs have been reported at a wide range of anatomic sites. To the authors's knowledge, there are no large series reporting both thoracic and extrathoracic SFTs nor are there any large series that analyze clinicopathologic correlates of tumor behavior. Institutional soft tissue tumor and pathology databases were reviewed to identify patients. Pathologic material was reviewed by an experienced soft tissue pathologist and scored for the presence of a histologically malignant component. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and phone calls to patients. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test, Pearson chi-square test, and log-rank test. Seventy-nine patients with SFTs treated at a single institution over an 18-year period were identified. These tumors arose in a wide range of anatomic sites. Thoracic and extrathoracic SFTs had similar clinical and pathologic features, although extrathoracic tumors were more likely to be symptomatic on diagnosis. Seventy-five patients underwent surgical excision of a SFT at our institution. Overall, SFTs had a low rate of local recurrence and metastasis after surgical treatment. Extrathoracic SFTs had an increased risk of local recurrence that was small but statistically significant. There was no difference in metastasis-free survival between thoracic and extrathoracic SFTs. Positive surgical margins and the presence of a histologically malignant component were factors predicting worse local recurrence-free survival. Positive surgical margins, tumor size greater than 10 cm, and the presence of a malignant component predicted worse metastasis-free survival. Solitary fibrous tumors are rare tumors that occur at all anatomic sites. Most SFT patients fare well after surgical treatment. Closer surveillance is warranted for those tumors that are larger than 10 cm or with the presence of a histologically malignant component. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10328
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              Soft-tissue sarcomas of adults; study of pathological prognostic variables and definition of a histopathological grading system.

              The pathological features of 155 adult patients with soft-tissue sarcomas were studied retrospectively, in an attempt to set up a grading system for these tumors. As the first step, seven histological criteria (tumor differentiation, cellularity, importance of nuclear atypia, presence of malignant giant cells, mitosis count, pattern of tumor necrosis and presence of vascular emboli) were evaluated in a monofactorial analysis. Five of these (tumor differentiation, cellularity, mitosis count, tumor necrosis, and vascular emboli) were correlated with the advent of metastases and with survival. A multivariate analysis, using a Cox model, selected a minimal set of three factors (tumor differentiation, mitosis count, and tumor necrosis) the combination of which was necessary and sufficient to retain all the prognostic information. A grading system was elaborated, which turned out to be correlated with the advent of metastasis and with patients' survival. A second multivariate analysis introducing clinical prognostic features showed that the histological grade was the most important prognostic factor for soft-tissue sarcomas. Thus, this grading system appears to be highly interesting because of its prognostic value and the facility of its elaboration. However, its reproducibility should be tested.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Modern Pathology
                Mod Pathol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0893-3952
                1530-0285
                September 2012
                May 11 2012
                September 2012
                : 25
                : 9
                : 1298-1306
                Article
                10.1038/modpathol.2012.83
                22575866
                © 2012

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