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      Kidney–brain crosstalk in the acute and chronic setting

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          Abstract

          Patients with kidney disease often exhibit multiple organ dysfunction that is caused, in part, by marked connectivity between the kidney and other organs and tissues. Substantial crosstalk occurs between the kidney and the brain, as indicated by the frequent presentation of neurological disorders, such as cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and neuropathy during the natural history of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathophysiology of such comorbid neurological disorders in kidney disease is governed by shared anatomic and vasoregulatory systems and humoral and non-humoral bidirectional pathways that affect both the kidney and the brain. During acute kidney injury, the brain and kidney might interact through the amplification of cytokine-induced damage, extravasation of leukocytes, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of sodium, potassium, and water channels. The advent of dialysis and renal transplantation programmes has led to a reduction in the rate of neurological complications associated with uraemia, but a new set of complications have arisen as a consequence of the effects of dialysis on the central nervous system over the short and long term. This Review discusses the clinical complications of acute and chronic renal failure from a neurologic perspective, and highlights current understanding of the underlying pathophysiologies.

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          Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO).

          Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, and the presence of CKD worsens outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is associated with specific risk factors. Emerging evidence indicates that the pathology and manifestation of CVD differ in the presence of CKD. During a clinical update conference convened by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), an international group of experts defined the current state of knowledge and the implications for patient care in important topic areas, including coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, and sudden cardiac death. Although optimal strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and management of these complications likely should be modified in the presence of CKD, the evidence base for decision making is limited. Trials targeting CVD in patients with CKD have a large potential to improve outcomes.
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            Is Open Access

            Cytokines and Chemokines at the Crossroads of Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration, and Neuropathic Pain

            Cytokines and chemokines are proteins that coordinate the immune response throughout the body. The dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines is a central feature in the development of neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination both in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in conditions of neuropathic pain. Pathological states within the nervous system can lead to activation of microglia. The latter may mediate neuronal and glial cell injury and death through production of proinflammatory factors such as cytokines and chemokines. These then help to mobilize the adaptive immune response. Although inflammation may induce beneficial effects such as pathogen clearance and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, uncontrolled inflammation can result in detrimental outcomes via the production of neurotoxic factors that exacerbate neurodegenerative pathology. In states of prolonged inflammation, continual activation and recruitment of effector cells can establish a feedback loop that perpetuates inflammation and ultimately results in neuronal injury. A critical balance between repair and proinflammatory factors determines the outcome of a neurodegenerative process. This review will focus on how cytokines and chemokines affect neuroinflammation and disease pathogenesis in bacterial meningitis and brain abscesses, Lyme neuroborreliosis, human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis, and neuropathic pain.
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              Mediators of Inflammation in Acute Kidney Injury

              Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains to be an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Inflammation is now believed to play a major role in the pathopathophysiology of AKI. It is hypothesized that in ischemia, sepsis and nephrotoxic models that the initial insult results in morphological and/or functional changes in vascular endothelial cells and/or in tubular epithelium. Then, leukocytes including neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes infiltrate into the injured kidneys. The injury induces the generation of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and chemokines by tubular and endothelial cells which contribute to the recruiting of leukocytes into the kidneys. Thus, inflammation has an important role in the initiation and extension phases of AKI. This review will focus on the mediators of inflammation contributing to the pathogenesis of AKI.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Nephrology
                Nat Rev Nephrol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5061
                1759-507X
                December 2015
                August 18 2015
                December 2015
                : 11
                : 12
                : 707-719
                Article
                10.1038/nrneph.2015.131
                26281892
                603e63e8-1ee0-4af1-bf2f-800a16469010
                © 2015

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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