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      Wounding promotes ovarian cancer progression and decreases efficacy of cisplatin in a syngeneic mouse model

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          Abstract

          Background

          Primary cytoreductive surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. The average interval between surgery and chemotherapy initiation is approximately 4-weeks at most centers; however, since surgery may accelerate residual tumor growth, a shorter interval may be more beneficial.

          Methods

          The murine ID8 cell model of ovarian cancer was used to examine the efficacy of cisplatin treatment administered perioperatively or 7 days after surgical wounding. Luciferase-expressing cells ID8 cells were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into female C57/Bl6 mice. Fourteen days post-injection, animals received an abdominal incision or anesthesia alone and received i.p. cisplatin either on the surgical day or 7 days later, or received no chemotherapy. Additional animals received cisplatin 28 days after wounding for comparison.

          Results

          Abdominal tumor mass increased 2.5-fold in wounded vs. unwounded animals as determined by bioluminescent in vivo tumor imaging. Cisplatin administered on the day of wounding decreased tumor burden by 50%, as compared to 90% in unwounded animals. Cisplatin on day 7 or day 28 decreased tumor burden by 80 and 37% respectively.

          Conclusions

          Surgical wounding increases ovarian tumor mass and decreases perioperative cisplatin efficacy in this animal model. Administration of cisplatin 1 week after surgery was more effective than cisplatin administered perioperatively or 4 weeks after surgery.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s13048-018-0428-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Wound healing: an overview of acute, fibrotic and delayed healing.

          Acute wounds normally heal in a very orderly and efficient manner characterized by four distinct, but overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Specific biological markers characterize healing of acute wounds. Likewise, unique biologic markers also characterize pathologic responses resulting in fibrosis and chronic non-healing ulcers. This review describes the major biological processes associated with both normal and pathologic healing. The normal healing response begins the moment the tissue is injured. As the blood components spill into the site of injury, the platelets come into contact with exposed collagen and other elements of the extracellular matrix. This contact triggers the platelets to release clotting factors as well as essential growth factors and cytokines such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Following hemostasis, the neutrophils then enter the wound site and begin the critical task of phagocytosis to remove foreign materials, bacteria and damaged tissue. As part of this inflammatory phase, the macrophages appear and continue the process of phagocytosis as well as releasing more PDGF and TGF beta. Once the wound site is cleaned out, fibroblasts migrate in to begin the proliferative phase and deposit new extracellular matrix. The new collagen matrix then becomes cross-linked and organized during the final remodeling phase. In order for this efficient and highly controlled repair process to take place, there are numerous cell-signaling events that are required. In pathologic conditions such as non-healing pressure ulcers, this efficient and orderly process is lost and the ulcers are locked into a state of chronic inflammation characterized by abundant neutrophil infiltration with associated reactive oxygen species and destructive enzymes. Healing proceeds only after the inflammation is controlled. On the opposite end of the spectrum, fibrosis is characterized by excessive matrix deposition and reduced remodeling. Often fibrotic lesions are associated with increased densities of mast cells. By understanding the functional relationships of these biological processes of normal compared to abnormal wound healing, hopefully new strategies can be designed to treat the pathological conditions.
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            A hyperactive piggyBac transposase for mammalian applications.

            DNA transposons have been widely used for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in various organisms. Among the transposons active in mammalian cells, the moth-derived transposon piggyBac is most promising with its highly efficient transposition, large cargo capacity, and precise repair of the donor site. Here we report the generation of a hyperactive piggyBac transposase. The active transposition of piggyBac in multiple organisms allowed us to screen a transposase mutant library in yeast for hyperactive mutants and then to test candidates in mouse ES cells. We isolated 18 hyperactive mutants in yeast, among which five were also hyperactive in mammalian cells. By combining all mutations, a total of 7 aa substitutions, into a single reading frame, we generated a unique hyperactive piggyBac transposase with 17-fold and ninefold increases in excision and integration, respectively. We showed its applicability by demonstrating an increased efficiency of generation of transgene-free mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. We also analyzed whether this hyperactive piggyBac transposase affects the genomic integrity of the host cells. The frequency of footprints left by the hyperactive piggyBac transposase was as low as WT transposase (~1%) and we found no evidence that the expression of the transposase affects genomic integrity. This hyperactive piggyBac transposase expands the utility of the piggyBac transposon for applications in mammalian genetics and gene therapy.
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              Latest research and treatment of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

              The natural history of ovarian cancer continues to be characterized by late-stage presentation, metastatic bulky disease burden and stagnant mortality statistics, despite prolific drug development. Robust clinical investigation, particularly with modifications to primary treatment surgical goals and adjuvant therapy are increasing median progression-free survival and overall survival, although the cure rates have been affected only modestly. Maintenance therapy holds promise, but studies have yet to identify an agent and/or strategy that can affect survival. Recurrent disease is largely an incurable state; however, current intervention with selected surgery, combination and targeted therapy and investigational protocols are impacting progression-free survival. Ovarian cancer is a diverse and genomically complex disease, which commands global attention. Rational investigation must balance the high rate of discovery with lagging clinical investigation and limited patient resources. Nevertheless, growth in our armamentarium offers unprecedented opportunities for patients suffering with this disease. This Review presents and reviews the contemporary management of the disease spectrum termed epithelial 'ovarian' cancer and describes the direction and early results of clinical investigation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (416) 586-4800 , brown@lunenfeld.ca
                Journal
                J Ovarian Res
                J Ovarian Res
                Journal of Ovarian Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                1757-2215
                4 July 2018
                4 July 2018
                2018
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2150 066X, GRID grid.415224.4, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, , Princess Margaret Hospital Cancer Centre, ; Toronto, ON Canada
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0473 9881, GRID grid.416166.2, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Sinai Health Systems, , Mt. Sinai Hospital, ; 60 Murray Street, 6-10016-3, Toronto, ON M5T 3L9 Canada
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, ON Canada
                Article
                428
                10.1186/s13048-018-0428-6
                6032528
                29973223
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: CIHR grant
                Award ID: MOP106679
                Funded by: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
                Award ID: Mount Sinai Hospital/University Health Network Research Fund (2016-2017)
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Obstetrics & Gynecology

                chemoresistance, mouse, cisplatin, wound healing, id8 cells, ovarian cancer

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