Objective: We present the 1st case of prepubertal hyperandrogenism because of a defect in the conversion of cortisone (E) to cortisol (F) by hepatic11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. Methods and Results: Clinical and anthropometric data were obtained. Serum androgens and gonadotropins with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone stimulation test, dexamethasone suppression test, and corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test were evaluated. Adrenal imaging and urinary steroid profiling by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were employed. A 6.9-year-old boy presented with precocious pubarche, height (+2.6 SD), accelerated bone age (11.5 years), and Tanner stage 2 pubic hair and genitalia. Serum androgen levels were elevated and dexamethasone suppressible. Serum F was normal, but the E concentration was increased. Central precocious puberty and congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. The excretion of androgen metabolites was moderately increased, but a highly increased tetrahydrocortisone (THE) and a diminished tetrahydrocortisol (THF + allo-THF) excretion was found with a [THF + allo-THF/ THE] ratio of 0.032 (normal controls 1.05 ± 0.17). The corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test showed an exaggerated adrenocorticotropic hormone response, suggesting a relative deficiency of F. Two months of hydrocortisone treatment (17.5 mg daily) failed to suppress androgens adequately. Treatment with dexamethasone (0.375 mg/daily) resulted in androgen suppression. Conclusions: In the case of precocious pubarche and accelerated growth, the diagnosis of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 deficiency (‘apparent cortisone reductase deficiency’) should be considered. The diagnosis is based on determinations of urinary steroid metabolites.