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      Understanding Interactions of Smoking on Prognosis of HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers

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          Most cited references 23

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          EGFR, p16, HPV Titer, Bcl-xL and p53, sex, and smoking as indicators of response to therapy and survival in oropharyngeal cancer.

          To prospectively identify markers of response to therapy and outcome in an organ-sparing trial for advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Pretreatment biopsies were examined for expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p16, Bcl-xL, and p53 as well as for p53 mutation. These markers were assessed for association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), response to therapy, and survival. Patient variables included smoking history, sex, age, primary site, tumor stage, and nodal status. EGFR expression was inversely associated with response to induction chemotherapy (IC) (P = .01), chemotherapy/radiotherapy (CRT; P = .055), overall survival (OS; P = .001), and disease-specific survival (DSS; P = .002) and was directly associated with current smoking (P = .04), female sex (P = .053), and lower HPV titer (P = .03). HPV titer was significantly associated with p16 expression (P < .0001); p16 was significantly associated with response to IC (P = .008), CRT (P = .009), OS (P = .001), and DSS (P = .003). As combined markers, lower HPV titer and high EGFR expression were associated with worse OS (rho(EGFR) = 0.008; rho(HPV) = 0.03) and DSS (rho(EGFR) = 0.01; rho(HPV) = 0.016). In 36 of 42 biopsies, p53 was wild-type, and only one HPV-positive tumor had mutant p53. The combination of low p53 and high Bcl-xL expression was associated with poor OS (P = .005) and DSS (P = .002). Low EGFR and high p16 (or higher HPV titer) expression are markers of good response to organ-sparing therapy and outcome, whereas high EGFR expression, combined low p53/high Bcl-xL expression, female sex, and smoking are associated with a poor outcome. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR and Bcl-xL are important adjuncts to the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.
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            Deintensification candidate subgroups in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer according to minimal risk of distant metastasis.

            To define human papillomavirus (HPV) -positive oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) suitable for treatment deintensification according to low risk of distant metastasis (DM). OPC treated with radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) from 2001 to 2009 were included. Outcomes were compared for HPV-positive versus HPV-negative patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified outcome predictors. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) stratified the DM risk. HPV status was ascertained in 505 (56%) of 899 consecutive OPCs. Median follow-up was 3.9 years. HPV-positive patients (n = 382), compared with HPV-negative patients (n = 123), had higher local (94% v 80%, respectively, at 3 years; P 10 reduced overall survival (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; P = .03) but did not impact RFS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.9; P = .65). RPA segregated HPV-positive patients into low (T1-3N0-2c; DC, 93%) and high DM risk (N3 or T4; DC, 76%) groups and HPV-negative patients into different low (T1-2N0-2c; DC, 93%) and high DM risk (T3-4N3; DC, 72%) groups. The DC rates for HPV-positive, low-risk N0-2a or less than 10 pack-year N2b patients were similar for RT alone and CRT, but the rate was lower in the N2c subset managed by RT alone (73% v 92% for CRT; P = .02). HPV-positive T1-3N0-2c patients have a low DM risk, but N2c patients from this group have a reduced DC when treated with RT alone and seem less suited for deintensification strategies that omit chemotherapy.
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              Cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population in the United States: cross-sectional surveys.

              The negative health effects of cigarette smoking and HIV infection are synergistic.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advances in Therapy
                Adv Ther
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0741-238X
                1865-8652
                March 2018
                March 6 2018
                March 2018
                : 35
                : 3
                : 255-260
                Article
                10.1007/s12325-018-0682-4
                © 2018

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