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A multiscale perspective on the kinetics of solid state transformations with application to bainite formation

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We give an excerpt of recent developments in the experimentally benchmarked modeling of bainite formation in the press hardening process. As the press hardening process poses a heavily multi-parameter dependent modeling challenge, we focus on three main branches which complement each other. We emphasise the combination of basic sharp interface and phase field models with pragmatically adapted multi phase field models and experimentally parametrized implementations of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model. In the basic thermodynamic modeling part, we review fundamental aspects of displacive and diffusional-displacive transformations to predict dominant transformation morphologies. These results provide a link to multi-phase-field implementations which allow to simulate isothermal bainitic transformations, supported by available material data from thermodynamic databases. Excellent agreement with experiments, e.g. scanning electron microscopy for the transformed bainite in the high-carbon steel 100Cr6 shows the value of these model implementations. The further connection to Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models offers to extend the understanding to transformation plasticity for the press hardening steel 22MnB5.

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Most cited references 126

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Kinetics of phase change. III: Granulation, Phase Change and Microstructure

M. Avrami (1941)

Author and article information

[1] Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, 40237 Düsseldorf, Germany;
[2] RWTH Aachen University, Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, 52056 Aachen, Germany;
[3] IWT Stiftung Institut für Werksto technik, 28359 Bremen, Germany;
[4] Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, 52425 Jülich, Germany
Author notes
Robert Spatschek, Email:
AIMS Materials Science
AIMS Materials Science
AIMS Press
17 September 2015
: 2
: 4
: 319-345
Research article
ScienceOpen disciplines:


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