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      Prognostic Value of Incomplete Revascularization after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Following Acute Coronary Syndrome: Focus on CKD Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Residual coronary artery disease (CAD) has been associated with worsened prognosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The residual SYNTAX Score (rSS) aims to assess residual CAD after PCI. The association between kidney function and rSS has not been investigated in ACS patients. In this study, we sought to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients exhibit more incomplete revascularization following stage revascularization procedures by PCI. We evaluated the impact of incomplete revascularization on the occurrence of major cardiovascular events (MACE) at one-year follow-up. Methods: A total of 831 ACS patients undergoing PCI were divided into 3 subgroups according to their estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR): 695 with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m², 108 with eGFR 60–30 mL/min/1.73 m², 28 with eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m². Initial SYNTAX score (SS) and rSS were calculated for all patients. Incomplete revascularization was defined by rSS > 8. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of MACE (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), repeated revascularization except from planned revascularization, stroke and definite or probable recurrent stent thrombosis) one year after the index procedure. Results: Severe CKD patients had significantly higher MACE (12.0% vs. 25.9% vs. 35.7%; p < 0.001), all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and heart failure events. Patients with rSS > 8 had higher MACE, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. CKD was an independent predictive factor of rSS > 8 (HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.71; p = 0.048). Multivariate analysis identified rSS > 8, but not CKD, as an independent predictor of cardiac death and MACE. Conclusion: In ACS, CKD is predictive of incomplete revascularization, which stands out as a strong predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes including cardiac death and MACE.

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          Most cited references 27

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          A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group.

          Serum creatinine concentration is widely used as an index of renal function, but this concentration is affected by factors other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To develop an equation to predict GFR from serum creatinine concentration and other factors. Cross-sectional study of GFR, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine concentration, and demographic and clinical characteristics in patients with chronic renal disease. 1628 patients enrolled in the baseline period of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study, of whom 1070 were randomly selected as the training sample; the remaining 558 patients constituted the validation sample. The prediction equation was developed by stepwise regression applied to the training sample. The equation was then tested and compared with other prediction equations in the validation sample. To simplify prediction of GFR, the equation included only demographic and serum variables. Independent factors associated with a lower GFR included a higher serum creatinine concentration, older age, female sex, nonblack ethnicity, higher serum urea nitrogen levels, and lower serum albumin levels (P < 0.001 for all factors). The multiple regression model explained 90.3% of the variance in the logarithm of GFR in the validation sample. Measured creatinine clearance overestimated GFR by 19%, and creatinine clearance predicted by the Cockcroft-Gault formula overestimated GFR by 16%. After adjustment for this overestimation, the percentage of variance of the logarithm of GFR predicted by measured creatinine clearance or the Cockcroft-Gault formula was 86.6% and 84.2%, respectively. The equation developed from the MDRD Study provided a more accurate estimate of GFR in our study group than measured creatinine clearance or other commonly used equations.
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            Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention.

            In patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary angiography is the standard method for guiding the placement of the stent. It is unclear whether routine measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR; the ratio of maximal blood flow in a stenotic artery to normal maximal flow), in addition to angiography, improves outcomes. In 20 medical centers in the United States and Europe, we randomly assigned 1005 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease to undergo PCI with implantation of drug-eluting stents guided by angiography alone or guided by FFR measurements in addition to angiography. Before randomization, lesions requiring PCI were identified on the basis of their angiographic appearance. Patients assigned to angiography-guided PCI underwent stenting of all indicated lesions, whereas those assigned to FFR-guided PCI underwent stenting of indicated lesions only if the FFR was 0.80 or less. The primary end point was the rate of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization at 1 year. The mean (+/-SD) number of indicated lesions per patient was 2.7+/-0.9 in the angiography group and 2.8+/-1.0 in the FFR group (P=0.34). The number of stents used per patient was 2.7+/-1.2 and 1.9+/-1.3, respectively (P<0.001). The 1-year event rate was 18.3% (91 patients) in the angiography group and 13.2% (67 patients) in the FFR group (P=0.02). Seventy-eight percent of the patients in the angiography group were free from angina at 1 year, as compared with 81% of patients in the FFR group (P=0.20). Routine measurement of FFR in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents significantly reduces the rate of the composite end point of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization at 1 year. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00267774.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Quantification of incomplete revascularization and its association with five-year mortality in the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) trial validation of the residual SYNTAX score.

              The residual Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) Score is an objective measure of the degree and complexity of residual stenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                06 June 2019
                June 2019
                : 8
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pôle d’Activité Médico-Chirurgicale Cardio-Vasculaire, Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Université de Strasbourg, 67090 Strasbourg, France; thomas.cardi@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (T.C.); anas.kayali@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (A.K.); benjamin.marchandot@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (B.M.); jessica.ristorto@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (J.R.); vietanhhoang78@ 123456yahoo.fr (V.A.H.); sebastien.hess@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (S.H.); mario.kibler@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (M.K.); laurence.jesel@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (L.J.); patrick.ohlmann@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (P.O.); olivier.morel@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (O.M.)
                [2 ]Vietnam National Heart Institute, Bach Mai Hospital, 78 Giai Phong, Dong Da, 10000 Hanoi, Vietnam
                [3 ]Regenerative Nanomedicine, UMR 1260, INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research), FMTS (Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de l’Université de Strasbourg), 
Université de Strasbourg, Faculté de Médecine, 11 rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: antonin.trimaille@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr ; Tel.: +00-33-369-551-055; Fax: +00-33-369-551-736
                Article
                jcm-08-00810
                10.3390/jcm8060810
                6617537
                31174280
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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