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      Electroacupuncture Treatment Attenuates Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats via Inhibiting Spinal Glia and the TLR4/NF-κB Pathway

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          Abstract

          Background and Purpose

          Neuropathic pain is a major side-effect of paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapy. Although the precise mechanisms responsible for this pain are unclear, the activation of neuroglia and upregulation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway are known to be involved. In this study, we determined whether electroacupuncture (EA) could limit mechanical hypersensitivity resulting from the chemotherapeutic drug PTX in rats, and investigated the potential mechanisms involved.

          Methods

          Rats intraperitoneally received a cumulative dose of 8 mg/kg PTX (2 mg/kg per day) or vehicle control on alternate days (day 0, 2, 4 and 6). EA treatment (10 Hz, 1 mA) was applied at bilateral ST36 acupoints in rats once every other day on days 0–14. For sham EA, needles were inserted at ST36 acupoints without electrical stimulation. Mechanical allodynia was measured by mechanical withdrawal latency (MWL) of paws to a mechanical stimulus every 2 days. Protein expression of TLR4 and NF-κB p65, as well as TMEM119 and GFAP (indicators of microglia and astrocytes, respectively) in spinal cord was quantified by Western blot analysis. Levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in spinal cord and serum were detected by ELISA.

          Results

          Mechanical allodynia induced by PTX in both paws (right and left) of rats was significantly attenuated by EA but not sham EA treatment. In addition, EA, but not sham EA, inhibited the activation of both microglia (TMEM119) and astrocytes (GFAP) in lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, Western blot analysis revealed that protein expression of TLR4 and NF-κB in spinal cord was suppressed by EA but not sham EA treatment. PTX significantly increased inflammatory cytokines in spinal cord and serum, which were ameliorated by EA treatment but not by sham EA.

          Conclusion

          These results indicate that EA treatment attenuates PTX-induced mechanical allodynia. The putative mechanism corroborating this finding could be related to the suppression of activated microglia and astrocytes in spinal cord, as well as the inhibition of the activated TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway by EA treatment.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Paclitaxel (taxol)

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            Glial activation: a driving force for pathological pain.

            Pain is classically viewed as being mediated solely by neurons, as are other sensory phenomena. The discovery that spinal cord glia (microglia and astrocytes) amplify pain requires a change in this view. These glia express characteristics in common with immune cells in that they respond to viruses and bacteria, releasing proinflammatory cytokines, which create pathological pain. These spinal cord glia also become activated by certain sensory signals arriving from the periphery. Similar to spinal infection, these signals cause release of proinflammatory cytokines, thus creating pathological pain. Taken together, these findings suggest a new, dramatically different approach to pain control, as all clinical therapies are focused exclusively on altering neuronal, rather than glial, function.
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              Studies of peripheral sensory nerves in paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction.

              Paclitaxel chemotherapy frequently induces neuropathic pain during and often persisting after therapy. The mechanisms responsible for this pain are unknown. Using a rat model of paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy, we have performed studies to search for peripheral nerve pathology. Paclitaxel-induced mechano-allodynia and mechano-hyperalgesia were evident after a short delay, peaked at day 27 and finally resolved on day 155. Paclitaxel- and vehicle-treated rats were perfused on days 7, 27 and 160. Portions of saphenous nerves were processed for electron microscopy. There was no evidence of paclitaxel-induced degeneration or regeneration as myelin structure was normal and the number/density of myelinated axons and C-fibres was unaltered by paclitaxel treatment at any time point. In addition, the prevalence of ATF3-positive dorsal root ganglia cells was normal in paclitaxel-treated animals. With one exception, at day 160 in myelinated axons, total microtubule densities were also unaffected by paclitaxel both in C-fibres and myelinated axons. C-fibres were significantly swollen following paclitaxel at days 7 and 27 compared to vehicle. The most striking finding was significant increases in the prevalence of atypical (swollen and vacuolated) mitochondria in both C-fibres (1.6- to 2.3-fold) and myelinated axons (2.4- to 2.6-fold) of paclitaxel-treated nerves at days 7 and 27. Comparable to the pain behaviour, these mitochondrial changes had resolved by day 160. Our data do not support a causal role for axonal degeneration or dysfunction of axonal microtubules in paclitaxel-induced pain. Instead, our data suggest that a paclitaxel-induced abnormality in axonal mitochondria of sensory nerves contributes to paclitaxel-induced pain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                29 January 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 239-250
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences , Beijing 100700, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences , Beijing 100091, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica , Beijing 100091, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yu-Xue Zhao; Xiao-Chun Yu Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences , Dongcheng District, Beijing100700, People’s Republic of China Email claricezhao@live.cn; yuxc@mail.cintcm.ac.cn
                Article
                241101
                10.2147/JPR.S241101
                7005725
                © 2020 Zhao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 48, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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