Blog
About

26
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: New Developments in Pathogenesis and Treatment

      , *

      International Journal of Nephrology

      SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Hemolytic uremic syndrome is defined by the characteristic triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. In children, most cases of HUS are caused by Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria, especially Escherichia coli O157:H7. Common vehicles of transmission include ground beef, unpasteurized milk, and municipal or swimming water. Shiga-toxin-associated HUS is a main cause of acute renal failure in young children. Management remains supportive as there is at present no specific therapy to ameliorate the prognosis. Immediate outcome is most often favourable but long-term renal sequelae are frequent due to nephron loss. Atypical HUS represents 5% of cases. In the past 15 years, mutations in complement regulators of the alternative pathway have been identified in almost 60% of cases, leading to excessive complement activation. The disease has a relapsing course and more than half of the patients either die or progress to end-stage renal failure. Recurrence after renal transplantation is frequent.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 116

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

          Most cases of diarrhoea-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) are caused by Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria; the pathophysiology differs from that of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Among Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), O157:H7 has the strongest association worldwide with HUS. Many different vehicles, in addition to the commonly suspected ground (minced) beef, can transmit this pathogen to people. Antibiotics, antimotility agents, narcotics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should not be given to acutely infected patients, and we advise hospital admission and administration of intravenous fluids. Management of HUS remains supportive; there are no specific therapies to ameliorate the course. The vascular injury leading to HUS is likely to be well under way by the time infected patients seek medical attention for diarrhoea. The best way to prevent HUS is to prevent primary infection with Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Genetics of HUS: the impact of MCP, CFH, and IF mutations on clinical presentation, response to treatment, and outcome.

            Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy with manifestations of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal impairment. Genetic studies have shown that mutations in complement regulatory proteins predispose to non-Shiga toxin-associated HUS (non-Stx-HUS). We undertook genetic analysis on membrane cofactor protein (MCP), complement factor H (CFH), and factor I (IF) in 156 patients with non-Stx-HUS. Fourteen, 11, and 5 new mutational events were found in MCP, CFH, and IF, respectively. Mutation frequencies were 12.8%, 30.1%, and 4.5% for MCP, CFH, and IF, respectively. MCP mutations resulted in either reduced protein expression or impaired C3b binding capability. MCP-mutated patients had a better prognosis than CFH-mutated and nonmutated patients. In MCP-mutated patients, plasma treatment did not impact the outcome significantly: remission was achieved in around 90% of both plasma-treated and plasma-untreated acute episodes. Kidney transplantation outcome was favorable in patients with MCP mutations, whereas the outcome was poor in patients with CFH and IF mutations due to disease recurrence. This study documents that the presentation, the response to therapy, and the outcome of the disease are influenced by the genotype. Hopefully this will translate into improved management and therapy of patients and will provide the way to design tailored treatments.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Thrombomodulin mutations in atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

              The hemolytic-uremic syndrome consists of the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. The common form of the syndrome is triggered by infection with Shiga toxin-producing bacteria and has a favorable outcome. The less common form of the syndrome, called atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, accounts for about 10% of cases, and patients with this form of the syndrome have a poor prognosis. Approximately half of the patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome have mutations in genes that regulate the complement system. Genetic factors in the remaining cases are unknown. We studied the role of thrombomodulin, an endothelial glycoprotein with anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, and cytoprotective properties, in atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. We sequenced the entire thrombomodulin gene (THBD) in 152 patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome and in 380 controls. Using purified proteins and cell-expression systems, we investigated whether thrombomodulin regulates the complement system, and we characterized the mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of thrombomodulin missense mutations associated with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome on complement activation by expressing thrombomodulin variants in cultured cells. Of 152 patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, 7 unrelated patients had six different heterozygous missense THBD mutations. In vitro, thrombomodulin binds to C3b and factor H (CFH) and negatively regulates complement by accelerating factor I-mediated inactivation of C3b in the presence of cofactors, CFH or C4b binding protein. By promoting activation of the plasma procarboxypeptidase B, thrombomodulin also accelerates the inactivation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Cultured cells expressing thrombomodulin variants associated with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome had diminished capacity to inactivate C3b and to activate procarboxypeptidase B and were thus less protected from activated complement. Mutations that impair the function of thrombomodulin occur in about 5% of patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nephrol
                IJN
                International Journal of Nephrology
                SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
                2090-214X
                2090-2158
                2011
                17 August 2011
                : 2011
                Affiliations
                Service de Néphrologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, 149 rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris, France
                Author notes
                *Patrick Niaudet: pniaudet@ 123456gmail.com

                Academic Editor: Franz Schaefer

                Article
                10.4061/2011/908407
                3159990
                21876803
                Copyright © 2011 O. Boyer and P. Niaudet.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Nephrology

                Comments

                Comment on this article