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      ADHD and lifestyle habits in Czech adults, a national sample

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          Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been added as a diagnosis to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 (DSM5) in 2013, thus making ADHD, which has been classically known as a childhood disorder, a life-long disorder. Those suffering from the condition show very specific behavioral traits, which manifest as lifestyle habits; they also show comorbidities that can be the symptoms and/or consequences of certain lifestyles.

          Materials and methods

          The targeted population was adults aged 18–65 years. The total sample was 1,012 (507 males and 505 females). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS V. 1.1) was administered to evaluate the current symptoms of ADHD and a questionnaire regarding lifestyles that are pertinent to ADHD, exercise, drug use, and diet.


          An ASRS score of 4–6 points was found in 11.4% of the male population and 9.7% of the female population (5–6 points indicate very high-intensity symptoms). A score of 6, the highest intensity of symptomatology, was found in 1.18% of males and 0.99% of females. Gender differences in scores were not statistically significant. In terms of self-reported lifestyles, we calculated an ordered logistic regression and the odds ratios of those with ASRS scores >4. Those with higher ASRS scores had higher rates of self-reported unhealthy lifestyles and poor diets with high consumption of sweets. We also ascertained a paradoxical finding that is not in line with the current literature on the disorder – lower rates of cigarette smoking among people with higher ADHD symptomatology.


          Several specific lifestyles were found to be associated with higher ADHD symptoms such as poor diet and cannabis use. Other factors classically associated with the disorder such as cocaine addiction and nicotinism were either insignificant or surprisingly less prominent among the Czech sample. However, ADHD-prone respondents reported to be more physically active, which fits the clinical picture of hyperactivity but contrasts with literature that reports sedentary ADHD lifestyle.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Toward systems neuroscience of ADHD: a meta-analysis of 55 fMRI studies.

          The authors performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of task-based functional MRI studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors searched PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Web of Science, ERIC, CINAHAL, and NeuroSynth for studies published through June 30, 2011. Significant differences in brain region activation between individuals with ADHD and comparison subjects were detected using activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Dysfunctional regions in ADHD were related to seven reference neuronal systems. The authors performed a set of meta-analyses focused on age groups (children and adults), clinical characteristics (history of stimulant treatment and presence of psychiatric comorbidities), and specific neuropsychological tasks (inhibition, working memory, and vigilance/attention). Fifty-five studies were included (39 for children and 16 for adults). In children, hypoactivation in ADHD relative to comparison subjects was observed mostly in systems involved in executive function (frontoparietal network) and attention (ventral attentional network). Significant hyperactivation in ADHD relative to comparison subjects was observed predominantly in the default, ventral attention, and somatomotor networks. In adults, ADHD-related hypoactivation was predominant in the frontoparietal system, while ADHD-related hyperactivation was present in the visual, dorsal attention, and default networks. Significant ADHD-related dysfunction largely reflected task features and was detected even in the absence of comorbid mental disorders or a history of stimulant treatment. A growing literature provides evidence of ADHD-related dysfunction in multiple neuronal systems involved in higher-level cognitive functions but also in sensorimotor processes, including the visual system, and in the default network. This meta-analytic evidence extends early models of ADHD pathophysiology that were focused on prefrontal-striatal circuits.
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            Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder indicates treatment effects.

             N Skokauskas,  T Frodl (2012)
              About 50-80% of ADHD cases have been found to persist into adulthood, but ADHD symptoms change with age. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and manual tracing studies to identify the differences between adults and children with ADHD as well as between treated and untreated individuals.   Several databases were searched using keywords 'attention-deficit and MRI', 'ADHD and MRI'. Gray matter volumes from VBM studies and caudate volumes from tracing studies of patients and controls were analyzed using signed differential mapping.   Meta-analyses detected reduced right globus pallidus and putamen volumes in VBM studies as well as decreased caudate volumes in manual tracing studies in children with ADHD. Adult patients with ADHD showed volume reduction in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). A higher percentage of treated participants were associated with less changes.   Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in children with ADHD. These changes and alterations in limbic regions like ACC and amygdala are more pronounced in non-treated populations and seem to diminish over time from child to adulthood. Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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              The association between pathological internet use and comorbid psychopathology: a systematic review.

              Pathological Internet use (PIU) has been conceptualized as an impulse-control disorder that shares characteristics with behavioral addiction. Research has indicated a potential link between PIU and psychopathology; however, the significance of the correlation remains ambiguous. The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate studies performed on the correlation between PIU and comorbid psychopathology; the secondary aims were to map the geographical distribution of studies, present a current synthesis of the evidence, and assess the quality of available research. An electronic literature search was conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsychINFO, Global Health, and Web of Science. PIU and known synonyms were included in the search. Data were extracted based on PIU and psychopathology, including depression, anxiety, symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive symptoms, social phobia and hostility/aggression. Effect sizes for the correlations observed were identified from either the respective publication or calculated using Cohen's d or R(2). The potential effect of publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot model and evaluated by Egger's test based on a linear regression. The majority of research was conducted in Asia and comprised cross-sectional designs. Only one prospective study was identified. Twenty articles met the preset inclusion and exclusion criteria; 75% reported significant correlations of PIU with depression, 57% with anxiety, 100% with symptoms of ADHD, 60% with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and 66% with hostility/aggression. No study reported associations between PIU and social phobia. The majority of studies reported a higher rate of PIU among males than females. The relative risks ranged from an OR of 1.02 to an OR of 11.66. The strongest correlations were observed between PIU and depression; the weakest was hostility/aggression. Depression and symptoms of ADHD appeared to have the most significant and consistent correlation with PIU. Associations were reported to be higher among males in all age groups. Limitations included heterogeneity in the definition and diagnosis of PIU. More studies with prospective designs in Western countries are critically needed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague
                [2 ]Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague
                [3 ]Institute of Psychology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague
                [4 ]Department of Paediatric Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Radek Ptacek, Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 11, 121 08, Prague 2, Czech Republic, Tel +420 73 933 1970, Email ptacek@
                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Dove Medical Press
                15 January 2018
                : 14
                : 293-299
                5774466 10.2147/NDT.S148921 ndt-14-293
                © 2018 Weissenberger et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                obesity, adhd, asrs, adulthood, diet, lifestyle


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