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      Pharmacogenetic testing of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 alleles for warfarin.

      Genetics in Medicine

      adverse effects, Alleles, Warfarin, Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases, drug therapy, Thromboembolism, methods, Pharmacogenetics, genetics, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Humans, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9, Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases, therapeutic use

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          Abstract

          American College of Medical Genetics statements and guidelines are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other health care professionals to help them provide quality medical genetic services. Adherence to these standards and guidelines does not necessarily ensure a successful medical outcome. These statements and guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the health care professional should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen. It may be prudent, however, to document in the patient's record the rationale for any significant deviation from these standards and guidelines. Warfarin (Coumadin) is a potent drug that when used judiciously and monitored closely, leads to substantial reductions in morbidity and mortality from thromboembolic events. However, even with careful monitoring, initiation of warfarin dosing is associated with highly variable responses between individuals and challenges achieving and maintaining levels within the narrow therapeutic range that can lead to adverse drug events. Variants of two genes, CYP2C9 and VKORC1, account for 30-50% of the variability in dosing of warfarin; thus, many believe that testing of these genes will aid in warfarin dosing recommendations. Evidence about this test is evolving rapidly, as is its translation into clinical practice. In an effort to address this situation, a multidisciplinary expert group was organized in November 2006 to evaluate the role of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 testing in altering warfarin-related therapeutic goals and reduction of adverse drug events. A recently completed Rapid-ACCE (Analytical, Clinical Validity, Clinical Utility, and Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications) Review, commissioned to inform this work group, was the foundation for this analysis. From this effort, specific recommendations for the appropriate use of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 testing were developed and are presented here. The group determined that the analytical validity of these tests has been met, and there is strong evidence to support association between these genetic variants and therapeutic dose of warfarin. However, there is insufficient evidence, at this time, to recommend for or against routine CYP2C9 and VKORC1 testing in warfarin-naive patients. Prospective clinical trials are needed that provide direct evidence of the benefits, disadvantages, and costs associated with this testing in the setting of initial warfarin dosing. Although the routine use of warfarin genotyping is not endorsed by this work group at this time, in certain situations, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 testing may be useful, and warranted, in determining the cause of unusual therapeutic responses to warfarin therapy.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Association of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 with warfarin dose requirement and risk of bleeding complications.

          The cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 is responsible for the metabolism of S-warfarin. Two known allelic variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 differ from the wild type CYP2C9*1 by a single aminoacid substitution in each case. The allelic variants are associated with impaired hydroxylation of S-warfarin in in-vitro expression systems. We have studied the effect of CYP2C9 polymorphism on the in-vivo warfarin dose requirement. Patients with a daily warfarin dose requirement of 1.5 mg or less (low-dose group, n=36), randomly selected patients with a wide range of dose requirements from an anticoagulant clinic in north-east England (clinic control group, n=52), and 100 healthy controls from the community in the same region were studied. Genotyping for the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles was done by PCR analysis. Case notes were reviewed to assess the difficulties encountered during the induction of warfarin therapy and bleeding complications in the low-dose and clinic control groups. The odds ratio for individuals with a low warfarin dose requirement having one or more CYP2C9 variant alleles compared with the normal population was 6.21 (95% CI 2.48-15.6). Patients in the low-dose group were more likely to have difficulties at the time of induction of warfarin therapy (5.97 [2.26-15.82]) and have increased risk of major bleeding complications (rate ratio 3.68 [1.43-9.50]) when compared with randomly selected clinic controls. We have shown that there is a strong association between CYP2C9 variant alleles and low warfarin dose requirement. CYP2C9 genotyping may identify a subgroup of patients who have difficulty at induction of warfarin therapy and are potentially at a higher risk of bleeding complications.
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            Mutations in VKORC1 cause warfarin resistance and multiple coagulation factor deficiency type 2.

            Coumarin derivatives such as warfarin represent the therapy of choice for the long-term treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events. Coumarins target blood coagulation by inhibiting the vitamin K epoxide reductase multiprotein complex (VKOR). This complex recycles vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to vitamin K hydroquinone, a cofactor that is essential for the post-translational gamma-carboxylation of several blood coagulation factors. Despite extensive efforts, the components of the VKOR complex have not been identified. The complex has been proposed to be involved in two heritable human diseases: combined deficiency of vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors type 2 (VKCFD2; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 607473), and resistance to coumarin-type anticoagulant drugs (warfarin resistance, WR; OMIM 122700). Here we identify, by using linkage information from three species, the gene vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), which encodes a small transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. VKORC1 contains missense mutations in both human disorders and in a warfarin-resistant rat strain. Overexpression of wild-type VKORC1, but not VKORC1 carrying the VKCFD2 mutation, leads to a marked increase in VKOR activity, which is sensitive to warfarin inhibition.
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              Association between CYP2C9 genetic variants and anticoagulation-related outcomes during warfarin therapy.

              Warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant that requires careful clinical management to balance the risks of overanticoagulation and bleeding with those of underanticoagulation and clotting. The principal enzyme involved in warfarin metabolism is CYP2C9, and 2 relatively common variant forms with reduced activity have been identified, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Patients with these genetic variants have been shown to require lower maintenance doses of warfarin, but a direct association between CYP2C9 genotype and anticoagulation status or bleeding risk has not been established. To determine if CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants are associated with overanticoagulation and bleeding events during warfarin therapy. Retrospective cohort study conducted at 2 anticoagulation clinics based in Seattle, Wash. Two hundred patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy for various indications during April 3, 1990, to May 31, 2001. Only patients with a complete history of warfarin exposure were included. Anticoagulation status, measured by time to therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR), rate of above-range INRs, and time to stable warfarin dosing; and time to serious or life-threatening bleeding events. Among 185 patients with analyzable data, 58 (31.4%) had at least 1 variant CYP2C9 allele and 127 (68.6%) had the wild-type (*1/*1) genotype. Mean maintenance dose varied significantly among the 6 genotype groups (*1/*1 [n = 127], *1/*2 [n = 28], *1/*3 [n = 18], *2/*2 [n = 4], *2/*3 [n = 3], *3/*3 [n = 5]) (by Kruskall-Wallis test, chi(2)(5) = 37.348; P<.001). Compared with patients with the wild-type genotype, patients with at least 1 variant allele had an increased risk of above-range INRs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.90). The variant group also required more time to achieve stable dosing (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.94), with a median difference of 95 days (P =.004). In addition, although numbers were small for some genotypes, representing potentially unstable estimates, patients with a variant genotype had a significantly increased risk of a serious or life-threatening bleeding event (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.18-4.86). The results of our study suggest that the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of overanticoagulation and of bleeding events among patients in a warfarin anticoagulation clinic setting, although small numbers in some cases would suggest the need for caution in interpretation. Screening for CYP2C9 variants may allow clinicians to develop dosing protocols and surveillance techniques to reduce the risk of adverse drug reactions in patients receiving warfarin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1097/GIM.0b013e318163c35f
                18281922

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