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      Development of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention as a National Reperfusion Strategy for Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Assessment of Its Use in Egypt

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          Objective: Early treatment of acute ischemia of the heart by performing immediate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore blood flow in patients with the clinical presentation of an acute coronary syndrome and more specifically with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can save lives. This study aims to identify the mean time (door to balloon time and first contact to balloon time) to primary PCI for STEMI patients and to assess the percentage of primary PCI and its success rate in Egypt.

          Methods: A registry study of patients presenting to cardiac centers in Egypt was designed, where patients’ basic characteristics, the treatment strategy, and the door to balloon time and the first contact to balloon time were assessed.

          Results: One thousand six hundred fifty STEMI patients with a mean age of 57 years were included in the study. Immediate transfer for primary PCI was the most used treatment strategy, representing 74.6% of all treatment strategies used. The door to balloon time and the first contact to balloon time were 50 and 60 minutes, respectively, with a primary PCI success rate of 65.1%.

          Conclusion: The registry study results showed a marked improvement by implementation of the best treatment strategy with respect to the time factor to achieve a better outcome for STEMI patients in Egypt.

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          Most cited references 9

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          System delay and mortality among patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

          Timely reperfusion therapy is recommended for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and door-to-balloon delay has been proposed as a performance measure in triaging patients for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, focusing on the time from first contact with the health care system to the initiation of reperfusion therapy (system delay) may be more relevant, because it constitutes the total time to reperfusion modifiable by the health care system. No previous studies have focused on the association between system delay and outcome in patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI. To evaluate the associations between system, treatment, patient, and door-to-balloon delays and mortality in patients with STEMI. Historical follow-up study based on population-based Danish medical registries of patients with STEMI transported by the emergency medical service and treated with primary PCI from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2008, at 3 high-volume PCI centers in Western Denmark. Patients (N = 6209) underwent primary PCI within 12 hours of symptom onset. The median follow-up time was 3.4 (interquartile range, 1.8-5.2) years. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios of mortality obtained by Cox proportional regression analysis. A system delay of 0 through 60 minutes (n = 347) corresponded to a long-term mortality rate of 15.4% (n = 43); a delay of 61 through 120 minutes (n = 2643) to a rate of 23.3% (n = 380); a delay of 121 through 180 minutes (n = 2092) to a rate of 28.1% (n = 378); and a delay of 181 through 360 minutes (n = 1127) to a rate of 30.8% (n = 275) (P < .001). In multivariable analysis adjusted for other predictors of mortality, system delay was independently associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.10 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.16] per 1-hour delay), as was its components, prehospital system delay and door-to-balloon delay. System delay was associated with mortality in patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI.
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            A comparison of immediate coronary angioplasty with intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction.

            Despite the widespread use of intravenous thrombolytic therapy and of immediate percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, randomized comparisons of the two approaches to reperfusion are lacking. We report the results of a prospective, randomized trial comparing immediate coronary angioplasty (without previous thrombolytic therapy) with intravenous streptokinase treatment. A total of 142 patients with acute myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to receive one of the two treatments. The left ventricular ejection fraction was measured by radionuclide scanning before hospital discharge. Quantitative coronary angiography was performed to assess the degree of residual stenosis in the infarct-related arteries. A total of 72 patients were assigned to receive streptokinase and 70 patients to undergo immediate angioplasty. Angioplasty was technically successful in 64 of the 65 patients who underwent the procedure. Infarction recurred in nine patients assigned to receive streptokinase, but in none of those assigned to receive angioplasty (P = 0.003). Fourteen patients in the streptokinase group had unstable angina after their infarction, but only four in the angioplasty group (P = 0.02). The mean (+/- SD) left ventricular ejection fraction as measured before discharge was 45 +/- 12 percent in the streptokinase group and 51 +/- 11 percent in the angioplasty group (P = 0.004). The infarct-related artery was patent in 68 percent of the patients in the streptokinase group and 91 percent of those in the angioplasty group (P = 0.001). Quantitative coronary angiography revealed stenosis of 36 +/- 20 percent of the luminal diameter in the angioplasty group, as compared with 76 +/- 19 percent in the streptokinase group (P < 0.001). Immediate angioplasty after acute myocardial infarction was associated with a higher rate of patency of the infarct-related artery, a less severe residual stenotic lesion, better left ventricular function, and less recurrent myocardial ischemia and infarction than was intravenous streptokinase.
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              Symptom-onset-to-balloon time and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty.

              The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between symptom-onset-to-balloon time and one-year mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary angioplasty. Despite the prognostic implications demonstrated in patients with STEMI treated with thrombolysis, the impact of time-delay on prognosis in patients undergoing primary angioplasty has yet to be established. Our study population consisted of 1,791 patients with STEMI treated by primary angioplasty from 1994 to 2001. All clinical, angiographic and follow-up data were collected. Subanalyses were conducted according to patient risk profile at presentation and preprocedural Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow. A total of 103 patients (5.8%) had died at one year. Symptom-onset-to-balloon time was significantly associated with the rate of postprocedural TIMI 3 flow (p = 0.012), myocardial blush grade (p = 0.033), and one-year mortality (p = 0.02). A stronger linear association between symptom-onset-to-balloon time and one-year mortality was observed in non-low-risk patients (p = 0.006) and those with preprocedural TIMI flow 0 to 1 (p = 0.013). No relationship was found between door-to-balloon time and mortality. At multivariate analysis, a symptom-onset-to-balloon time >4 h was identified as an independent predictor of one-year mortality (p 4 h was identified as independent predictor of one-year mortality.

                Author and article information

                Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                July 2020
                July 2020
                : 4
                : 4
                : 269-278
                1Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt
                2International Center for Organization and Marketing, Alexandria, Egypt
                3Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine Assiut University Hospital, Assiut Governorate, Egypt
                4Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine Ain Shams University Hospital, Heliopolis, Egypt
                5Cardiology Department, Nasser Institute, Cairo, Egypt
                6Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Hospital, Zagazig, Egypt
                7Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Banha University Hospital, Banha, Egypt
                8Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Kasr El Ainy Hospital, Kasr Al Ainy, Egypt
                9Cardiology Department, Wady El Nile Hospital, Zeitoun, Egypt
                10Cardiology Department, Military Hospital, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt
                11Cardiology Department, National Heart Institute, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt
                12Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Radwa Mehanna, MD, PhD, Medical Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Khartoum Square, Azareeta, Alexandria, 21561, Egypt, Tel.: 00201223650131, E-mail: radwa.mehanna@
                Copyright © 2020 Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See

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