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      Bacterial microbiome of lungs in COPD

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          Abstract

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third leading cause of death in the world. Although smoking is the main risk factor for this disease, only a minority of smokers develop COPD. Why this happens is largely unknown. Recent discoveries by the human microbiome project have shed new light on the importance and richness of the bacterial microbiota at different body sites in human beings. The microbiota plays a particularly important role in the development and functional integrity of the immune system. Shifts or perturbations in the microbiota can lead to disease. COPD is in part mediated by dysregulated immune responses to cigarette smoke and other environmental insults. Although traditionally the lung has been viewed as a sterile organ, by using highly sensitive genomic techniques, recent reports have identified diverse bacterial communities in the human lung that may change in COPD. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the lung microbiota in COPD and its potential implications for pathogenesis of the disease.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection.

          Although commensal bacteria are crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis of the intestine, the role of commensal bacteria in immune responses at other mucosal surfaces remains less clear. Here, we show that commensal microbiota composition critically regulates the generation of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and antibody responses following respiratory influenza virus infection. By using various antibiotic treatments, we found that neomycin-sensitive bacteria are associated with the induction of productive immune responses in the lung. Local or distal injection of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could rescue the immune impairment in the antibiotic-treated mice. Intact microbiota provided signals leading to the expression of mRNA for pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 at steady state. Following influenza virus infection, inflammasome activation led to migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the lung to the draining lymph node and T-cell priming. Our results reveal the importance of commensal microbiota in regulating immunity in the respiratory mucosa through the proper activation of inflammasomes.
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            The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction.

            A prospective epidemiological study of the early stages of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was performed on London working men. The findings showed that forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) falls gradually over a lifetime, but in most non-smokers and many smokers clinically significant airflow obstruction never develops. In susceptible people, however, smoking causes irreversible obstructive changes. If a susceptible smoker stops smoking he will not recover his lung function, but the average further rates of loss of FEV1 will revert to normal. Therefore, severe or fatal obstructive lung disease could be prevented by screening smokers' lung function in early middle age if those with reduced function could be induced to stop smoking. Infective processes and chronic mucus hypersecretion do not cause chronic airflow obstruction to progress more rapidly. There are thus two largely unrelated disease processes, chronic airflow obstruction and the hypersecretory disorder (including infective processes).
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              Microbial diversity and function in soil: from genes to ecosystems.

              Soils sustain an immense diversity of microbes, which, to a large extent, remains unexplored. A range of novel methods, most of which are based on rRNA and rDNA analyses, have uncovered part of the soil microbial diversity. The next step in the era of microbial ecology is to extract genomic, evolutionary and functional information from bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of the soil community genomes (the metagenome). Sophisticated analyses that apply molecular phylogenetics, DNA microarrays, functional genomics and in situ activity measurements will provide huge amounts of new data, potentially increasing our understanding of the structure and function of soil microbial ecosystems, and the interactions that occur within them. This review summarizes the recent progress in studies of soil microbial communities with focus on novel methods and approaches that provide new insight into the relationship between phylogenetic and functional diversity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2014
                21 February 2014
                : 9
                : 229-238
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart-Lung Institute, St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Don D Sin, UBC James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart-Lung Institute, St Paul’s Hospital, Room 166, 1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6Z 1Y6, Tel +1 604 806 8346 ext 68395, Fax +1 604 806 8351, Email don.sin@ 123456hli.ubc.ca
                Article
                copd-9-229
                10.2147/COPD.S38932
                3937108
                © 2014 Sze et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Respiratory medicine

                lungs, bacterial microbiome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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