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      Altered Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Androgens have major influences on the regulation of bone mineralization. Because of their unique peripheral metabolism androgens may act on bone via activation of the androgen and/or estrogen receptor. Patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (cAIS) are natural models to assess androgen actions on bone. We studied bone mineral density (BMD) in 10 patients with cAIS (mean age 13.70, range 4.7–19.8 years); 3 patients were studied before gonadectomy; the others were castrated and 6 were on hormonal replacement therapy. The BMD area (aBMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray; lumbar ‘apparent’ volumetric density (vBMD) was calculated using the formula vBMD = aBMD × [4/(π × width)]. In the patients, aBMD (0.72 ± 0.16 g/cm<sup>2</sup>) and vBMD (0.23 ± 0.04 g/cm<sup>3</sup>) were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in comparison with those of a control group (n = 15, age 5.0–20.5 years: aBMD 1.028 ± 0.20 g/cm<sup>2</sup>; vBMD 0.35 ± 0.04 g/cm<sup>3</sup>). Both aBMD and vBMD were also reduced in comparison with normal values for males (aBMD –2.66 ± 0.99 SDS, p < 0.001; vBMD –3.08 ± 1.53 SDS, p < 0.0005) and females (aBMD –2.88 ± 1.05 SDS, p < 0.001; vBMD –2.84 ± 1.18 SDS, p < 0.0007). Real lumbar bone density, assessed by computed tomography in 1 patient, was also reduced (–6.2 SDS and –3.5 SDS for male and female normal values, respectively). Biochemical markers of bone metabolism were normal and not significantly different in patients and controls. Girls with cAIS did not have more fractures than controls. In conclusion, both aBMD and vBMD are reduced in cAIS patients, while bone turnover and the fracture risk seem not to be increased. Our data indicate that both androgens and estrogens may be required for acquisition of bone density during childhood.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens

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            Androgen receptor defects: historical, clinical, and molecular perspectives [published erratum appears in Endocr Rev 1995 Aug;16(4):546]

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              Androgen-Receptor Blockade Does Not Impair Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Females

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                1998
                December 1998
                12 February 1999
                : 50
                : 6
                : 309-314
                Affiliations
                a Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Department of Reproductive Medicine and Pediatrics, University of Pisa, ‘Santa Chiara’ Hospital, Pisa; b Pediatric Hospital ‘Bambino Gesù’, Rome and c Pediatric Endocrine Division, Pediatric Hospital ‘Regina Margherita’, Turin, Italy
                Article
                23296 Horm Res 1998;50:309–314
                10.1159/000023296
                9973670
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 37, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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