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      Neurologic conditions and disorders of uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease: presentations, causes, and treatment strategies

      1
      Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
      Informa UK Limited

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d5409012e51">Introduction: Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic, and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Areas covered: This review summarized central and peripheral nervous system complications of uremic syndrome of CKD and their pathogenic mechanisms. They include cognitive deterioration, encephalopathy, seizures, asterixis, myoclonus, restless leg syndrome, central pontine myelinolysis, stroke, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropathies, and myopathy. Their pathogenic mechanisms are complex and multiple. They include (1) accumulation of uremic toxins resulting in neurotoxicity, blood-brain barrier injury, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, brain neurotransmitters imbalance, ischemic/microvascular changes, and brain metabolism dysfunction (e.g. dopamine deficiency), (2) metabolic derangement (as acidosis, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperkalemia); (3) secondary hyperparathyroidism, (4) erythropoietin and iron deficiency anemia, (5) thiamin, vitamin D, and other nutritional deficiencies, (6) hyperhomocysteinemia, and (7) coagulation problems. Expert commentary: Nervous system complications of uremia contribute to the patients' morbidity and mortality. Optimizing renal replacement therapy, correction of associated metabolic and medical conditions, and improved understanding of possible pathogenic mechanisms of these complications is a major target for their prevention and treatment. </p>

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          Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

          The objective was to provide guidelines to clinicians for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency with an emphasis on the care of patients who are at risk for deficiency. The Task Force was composed of a Chair, six additional experts, and a methodologist. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during several conference calls and e-mail communications. The draft prepared by the Task Force was reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Clinical Affairs Core Committee, and cosponsoring associations, and it was posted on The Endocrine Society web site for member review. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is very common in all age groups and that few foods contain vitamin D, the Task Force recommended supplementation at suggested daily intake and tolerable upper limit levels, depending on age and clinical circumstances. The Task Force also suggested the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test in patients at risk for deficiency. Treatment with either vitamin D(2) or vitamin D(3) was recommended for deficient patients. At the present time, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend screening individuals who are not at risk for deficiency or to prescribe vitamin D to attain the noncalcemic benefit for cardiovascular protection.
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            Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States.

            The prevalence and incidence of kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation in the United States have increased from 1988 to 2004. Whether there have been changes in the prevalence of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during this period is uncertain. To update the estimated prevalence of CKD in the United States. Cross-sectional analysis of the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 1988-1994 and NHANES 1999-2004), a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults aged 20 years or older in 1988-1994 (n = 15,488) and 1999-2004 (n = 13,233). Chronic kidney disease prevalence was determined based on persistent albuminuria and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Persistence of microalbuminuria (>30 mg/g) was estimated from repeat visit data in NHANES 1988-1994. The GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation reexpressed to standard serum creatinine. The prevalence of both albuminuria and decreased GFR increased from 1988-1994 to 1999-2004. The prevalence of CKD stages 1 to 4 increased from 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2%-10.9%) in 1988-1994 to 13.1% (95% CI, 12.0%-14.1%) in 1999-2004 with a prevalence ratio of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.4). The prevalence estimates of CKD stages in 1988-1994 and 1999-2004, respectively, were 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.2%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.3%) for stage 1; 2.7% (95% CI, 2.2%-3.2%) and 3.2% (95% CI, 2.6%-3.9%) for stage 2; 5.4% (95% CI, 4.9%-6.0%) and 7.7% (95% CI, 7.0%-8.4%) for stage 3; and 0.21% (95% CI, 0.15%-0.27%) and 0.35% (0.25%-0.45%) for stage 4. A higher prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and hypertension and higher body mass index explained the entire increase in prevalence of albuminuria but only part of the increase in the prevalence of decreased GFR. Estimation of GFR from serum creatinine has limited precision and a change in mean serum creatinine accounted for some of the increased prevalence of CKD. The prevalence of CKD in the United States in 1999-2004 is higher than it was in 1988-1994. This increase is partly explained by the increasing prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and raises concerns about future increased incidence of kidney failure and other complications of CKD.
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              Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: associated clinical and radiologic findings.

              To identify and define clinical associations and radiologic findings of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Patients prospectively diagnosed as having PRES from October 1, 2005, through April 30, 2009, were pooled with retrospectively identified patients admitted from August 1, 1999, through September 30, 2005. We performed a detailed review of clinical information, including demographics, presenting symptoms, medical history, and risk factors. All patients underwent computed tomography of the brain or magnetic resonance imaging. Findings on magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed independently by 2 neuroradiologists. We identified 120 cases of PRES in 113 patients (mean age, 48 years). Mean peak systolic blood pressure was 199 mm Hg (minimum-maximum, 160-268 mm Hg), and mean peak diastolic blood pressure was 109 mm Hg (minimum-maximum, 60-144 mm Hg). Etiologies of PRES included hypertension (n=69 [61%]), cytotoxic medications (n=21 [19%]), sepsis (n=8 [7%]), preeclampsia or eclampsia (n=7 [6%]), and multiple organ dysfunction (n=1 [1%]). Autoimmune disease was present in 51 patients (45%). Clinical presentations included seizures (n=84 [74%]), encephalopathy (n=32 [28%]), headache (n=29 [26%]), and visual disturbances (n=23 [20%]). In the 115 cases (109 patients) for which magnetic resonance imaging findings were available, the parieto-occipital regions were the most commonly involved (n=108 [94%]), followed by the frontal lobe (n=88 [77%]), temporal lobe (n=74 [64%]), and cerebellum (n=61 [53%]). Cerebellar involvement was significantly more frequent in patients with a history of autoimmunity (P=.008), and patients with sepsis were more likely to have cortical involvement (P<.001). A substantial proportion of patients with PRES have underlying autoimmune conditions that may support endothelial dysfunction as a pathophysiologic mechanism. On brain imaging, the location and severity of vasogenic edema were mostly similar for the different clinical subgroups.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
                Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
                Informa UK Limited
                1751-2433
                1751-2441
                December 03 2018
                January 02 2019
                January 11 2019
                January 02 2019
                : 12
                : 1
                : 61-90
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt
                Article
                10.1080/17512433.2019.1555468
                30501441
                69696327-aa77-4041-8706-441e8204efd4
                © 2019
                History

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