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      Iodized Oil as a Complement to Iodized Salt in Schoolchildren in Endemic Goiter in Romania

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          Abstract

          Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and possible side effects of low doses of iodized oil on iodine nutrition and thyroid function in endemic goiter in Romania. Methods: Random selection of 214 schoolchildren aged 6–14 years. Serial measurements of urinary iodine, thyroid volume with ultrasound, serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin and thyroid autoantibodies before and up to 2 years after the oral administration of 200 mg iodine in iodized oil. Results: Urinary iodine concentrations indicated a moderate iodine deficiency before therapy, sharply increased soon after therapy and slowly decreased thereafter but remained within the normal range up to more than 1 year after therapy. The prevalence of goiter was 29% before the administration of iodized oil and 9% 1 year later. Thyroid function tests and autoantibodies were normal before and up to 2 years after therapy. Conclusion: A single dose of 200 mg iodine from oral Lipiodol<sup>®</sup> appears adequate and safe for correcting moderate iodine deficiency in children.

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          Iodine deficiency in the world: where do we stand at the turn of the century?

          Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation. Universal salt iodization (USI), calling for all salt used in agriculture, food processing, catering and household to be iodized, is the agreed strategy for achieving iodine sufficiency. This article reviews published information on programs for the sustainable elimination of the iodine deficiency disorders and reports new data on monitoring and impact of salt iodization programs at the population level. Currently, 68% of households from areas of the world with previous iodine deficiency have access to iodized salt, compared to less than 10% a decade ago. This great achievement, a public health success unprecedented in the field of noncommunicable diseases, must be better recognized by the health sector, including thyroidologists. On the other hand, the managers and sponsors of programs of iodized salt must appreciate the continuing need for greatly improved monitoring and quality control. For example, partnership evaluation of iodine nutrition using the ThyroMobil model in 35,223 schoolchildren at 378 sites of 28 countries has shown that many previously iodine deficient parts of the world now have median urinary iodine concentrations well above 300 microg/L, which is excessive and carries the risk of adverse health consequences. The elimination of iodine deficiency is within reach but major additional efforts are required to cover the whole population at risk and to ensure quality control and sustainability.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            HRE
            Horm Res Paediatr
            10.1159/issn.1663-2818
            Hormone Research in Paediatrics
            S. Karger AG
            1663-2818
            1663-2826
            2002
            2002
            23 August 2002
            : 58
            : 2
            : 78-82
            Affiliations
            aInstitute of Endocrinology, Bucharest, and bDistrict Hospital of Brasov, Romania; cUniversity Hospital Saint-Pierre and dInternational Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD), Brussels, Belgium; ePostgraduate Medical Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia
            Article
            64657 Horm Res 2002;58:78–82
            10.1159/000064657
            12207166
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 33, Pages: 5
            Categories
            Original Paper

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