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      Iodized Oil as a Complement to Iodized Salt in Schoolchildren in Endemic Goiter in Romania

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          Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and possible side effects of low doses of iodized oil on iodine nutrition and thyroid function in endemic goiter in Romania. Methods: Random selection of 214 schoolchildren aged 6–14 years. Serial measurements of urinary iodine, thyroid volume with ultrasound, serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin and thyroid autoantibodies before and up to 2 years after the oral administration of 200 mg iodine in iodized oil. Results: Urinary iodine concentrations indicated a moderate iodine deficiency before therapy, sharply increased soon after therapy and slowly decreased thereafter but remained within the normal range up to more than 1 year after therapy. The prevalence of goiter was 29% before the administration of iodized oil and 9% 1 year later. Thyroid function tests and autoantibodies were normal before and up to 2 years after therapy. Conclusion: A single dose of 200 mg iodine from oral Lipiodol<sup>®</sup> appears adequate and safe for correcting moderate iodine deficiency in children.

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          Iodine deficiency in the world: where do we stand at the turn of the century?

          Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation. Universal salt iodization (USI), calling for all salt used in agriculture, food processing, catering and household to be iodized, is the agreed strategy for achieving iodine sufficiency. This article reviews published information on programs for the sustainable elimination of the iodine deficiency disorders and reports new data on monitoring and impact of salt iodization programs at the population level. Currently, 68% of households from areas of the world with previous iodine deficiency have access to iodized salt, compared to less than 10% a decade ago. This great achievement, a public health success unprecedented in the field of noncommunicable diseases, must be better recognized by the health sector, including thyroidologists. On the other hand, the managers and sponsors of programs of iodized salt must appreciate the continuing need for greatly improved monitoring and quality control. For example, partnership evaluation of iodine nutrition using the ThyroMobil model in 35,223 schoolchildren at 378 sites of 28 countries has shown that many previously iodine deficient parts of the world now have median urinary iodine concentrations well above 300 microg/L, which is excessive and carries the risk of adverse health consequences. The elimination of iodine deficiency is within reach but major additional efforts are required to cover the whole population at risk and to ensure quality control and sustainability.

            Author and article information

            Horm Res Paediatr
            Hormone Research in Paediatrics
            S. Karger AG
            23 August 2002
            : 58
            : 2
            : 78-82
            aInstitute of Endocrinology, Bucharest, and bDistrict Hospital of Brasov, Romania; cUniversity Hospital Saint-Pierre and dInternational Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD), Brussels, Belgium; ePostgraduate Medical Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia
            64657 Horm Res 2002;58:78–82
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 33, Pages: 5
            Original Paper


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