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An eruption of yellow-red papules on the trunk, arms, and legs of an adult

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      Structural correlations between dermoscopic and histopathological features of juvenile xanthogranuloma.

       M. Song,  D-S Jung,  H.-C. Ko (2011)
      Juvenile xanthogranuloma(JXG) is the variant of non-Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. The orange-yellow background coloration with clouds of paler yellow deposits is the most characteristic dermoscopic finding of JXG. Other dermoscopic features include erythematous border, subtle pigment network and white linear streak. The objective of this study was to present the structural correlation between dermoscopic features and histopathological findings of JXG and to find the different dermoscopic features in various stages of JXG. Eleven patients with histologically proven JXG were examined with polarized light dermoscopy. Histopathological findings were assessed and dermoscopic features including setting sun appearance, clouds of paler yellow globules, whitish streak, and branched and linear vessels were evaluated. Among 11 patients, five patients were in early evolutionary stage, four patients in fully developed stage and two in late regressive stage. The setting sun appearance was found in all patients in different stages except one in late regressive stage (90.9%). The clouds of paler yellow globules were present in nine patients (81.8%) and were constant features in fully developed stage and late regressive stage. The whitish streak was present in four patients (36.4%) and telangiectasia in 10 patients (81.8%). The setting sun appearance may hold diagnostic value in early evolutionary stage to fully developed stage, but not in late regressive stage. The clouds of paler yellow globules are more predominant in fully developed stage and late regressive stage. In addition to the use of dermoscopy as an accurate diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, it could be applied in evaluation of histopathological maturation of JXG.
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        Adult xanthogranuloma mimicking basal cell carcinoma: dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy and pathological correlation.

        Juvenile xanthogranuloma in adulthood is an infrequent non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which may simulate malignant tumors such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or amelanotic melanoma. Dermoscopy has been described as a useful tool in the preoperative diagnosis of xanthogranuloma. We report a xanthogranuloma on the suprapubic area of a 48-year-old female, which clinically and dermoscopically mimicked a BCC with a yellowish hue and arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy exhibited large highly refractive atypical cells in the dermis, some of them with pleomorphic nuclei, corresponding to Touton cells in the histopathological study. To our knowledge this is the first description of the clinical, dermoscopic and confocal microscopy correlations of a xanthogranuloma.
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          Multiple adult xanthogranuloma: case report and literature review.

          Non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses form a heterogeneous group defined by the proliferation of cells with macrophage characteristics. Diagnosis is easy in typical cases but becomes more complex in unusual forms. We report the case of a 53-year-old patient who presented multiple brown-to-yellowish papules and nodules of the trunk, neck, and head evolving for 6 months. No visceral involvement was found. Histopathological examination revealed histiocytic proliferation with features of secondary xanthomization with the presence of giant foamy multinucleated Touton cells. One year later, all lesions cleared spontaneously. Based on the clinical presentation and evolution and on the immunohistologic data, we retain the diagnosis of adult xanthogranuloma (AXG) in a diffuse shape. Multiple AXG is a rare entity (15 cases reported since 1963) with a stereotypic presentation. It is important to recognize because of its good prognosis and the absence of visceral involvement therefore requiring no investigations or aggressive treatments. This case is interesting because of the complete and spontaneous healing of all the lesions within 20 months. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Dermatology, Penn State Health, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
            [2 ]Department of Pathology, Lancaster General Health, Lancaster, PA, USA
            [3 ]Lebanon VA Medical Center, Lebanon, PA, USA
            [4 ]Department of Family and Community Medicine, Penn State Health, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: L. Claire Hollins, MD, 500 University Drive, Suite 100, Hershey, PA 17033 USA. Email: lhollins@ 123456pennstatehealth.psu.edu .

            All authors have contributed significantly to this publication.

            Journal
            Dermatol Pract Concept
            Dermatol Pract Concept
            DP
            Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
            Derm101.com
            2160-9381
            July 2018
            31 July 2018
            : 8
            : 3
            : 177-179
            6092065
            10.5826/dpc.0803a05
            dp0803a05
            ©2018 Hollins et al.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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