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      Vipegitide: a folded peptidomimetic partial antagonist of α2β1 integrin with antiplatelet aggregation activity

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          Abstract

          Linear peptides containing the sequence WKTSRTSHY were used as lead compounds to synthesize a novel peptidomimetic antagonist of α2β1 integrin, with platelet aggregation-inhibiting activity, named Vipegitide. Vipegitide is a 13-amino acid, folded peptidomimetic molecule, containing two α-aminoisobutyric acid residues at positions 6 and 8 and not stable in human serum. Substitution of glycine and tryptophan residues at positions 1 and 2, respectively, with a unit of two polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules yielded peptidomimetic Vipegitide-PEG2, stable in human serum for over 3 hours. Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 showed high potency (7×10 −10 M and 1.5×10 −10 M, respectively) and intermediate efficacy (40% and 35%, respectively) as well as selectivity toward α2 integrin in inhibition of adhesion of α1/α2 integrin overexpressing cells toward respective collagens. Interaction of both peptidomimetics with extracellular active domain of α2 integrin was confirmed in cell-free binding assay with recombinant α2 A-domain. Integrin α2β1 receptor is found on the platelet membrane and triggers collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 inhibited α2β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of human and murine platelets under the flow condition, by 50%. They efficiently blocked adenosine diphosphate- and collagen I-induced platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma and whole human blood. Higher potency of Vipegitide than Vipegitide-PEG2 is consistent with results of computer modeling of the molecules in water. These peptidomimetic molecules were acutely tolerated in mice upon intravenous bolus injection of 50 mg/kg. These results underline the potency of Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 molecules as platelet aggregation-inhibiting drug lead compounds in antithrombotic therapy.

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          The collagen-binding A-domains of integrins alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) recognize the same specific amino acid sequence, GFOGER, in native (triple-helical) collagens.

          We have previously assigned an integrin alpha(2)beta(1)-recognition site in collagen I to the sequence, GFOGERGVEGPOGPA (O = Hyp), corresponding to residues 502-516 of the alpha(1)(I) chain and located in the fragment alpha(1)(I)CB3 (Knight, C. G., Morton, L. F., Onley, D. J., Peachey, A. R., Messent, A. J., Smethurst, P. A., Tuckwell, D. S., Farndale, R. W., and Barnes, M. J. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 33287-33294). In this study, we show that recognition is entirely contained within the six-residue sequence GFOGER. This sequence, when in triple-helical conformation, readily supports alpha(2)beta(1)-dependent cell adhesion and exhibits divalent cation-dependent binding of isolated alpha(2)beta(1) and recombinant alpha(2) A-domain, being at least as active as the parent collagen. Replacement of E by D causes loss of recognition. The same sequence binds integrin alpha(1) A-domain and supports integrin alpha(1)beta(1)-mediated cell adhesion. Triple-helical GFOGER completely inhibits alpha(2) A-domain binding to collagens I and IV and alpha(2)beta(1)-dependent adhesion of platelets and HT 1080 cells to these collagens. It also fully inhibits alpha(1) A-domain binding to collagen I and strongly inhibits alpha(1)beta(1)-mediated adhesion of Rugli cells to this collagen but has little effect on either alpha1 A-domain binding or adhesion of Rugli cells to collagen IV. We conclude that the sequence GFOGER represents a high-affinity binding site in collagens I and IV for alpha(2)beta(1) and in collagen I for alpha(1)beta(1). Other high-affinity sites in collagen IV mediate its recognition of alpha(1)beta(1).
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            WMA Declaration of Helsinki-ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects

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              Scientific and therapeutic advances in antiplatelet therapy.

              Over the past decade, the platelet has emerged as a pivotal entity in cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, the 'preeminence of the platelet' has spawned a variety of drugs that have been shown in large-scale randomized trials to improve patient outcomes in acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous revascularization procedures. Although the platelet was initially viewed only as a bystander in haemostasis, it is now evident that the platelet is in fact a key mediator of thrombosis as well as of inflammation. New insights at the cellular and genomic levels will probably generate novel drugs to inhibit platelet function more effectively and safely than previously possible.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                05 January 2015
                : 9
                : 291-304
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy Institute for Drug Research, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
                [2 ]Department of Hematology, Coagulation Unit, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
                [4 ]Institute for Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany
                [5 ]Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Philip Lazarovici, School of Pharmacy Institute for Drug Research, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91120, Israel, Tel +972 2 675 8729, Fax +972 2 675 7490, Email philipl@ 123456ekmd.huji.ac.il
                Article
                dddt-9-291
                10.2147/DDDT.S72844
                4294129
                © 2015 Momic et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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